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Radiation Physics

Section edited by Christoph Bert and Katia Parodi

The Radiation Physics section aims at providing a platform for medical physics research and applications in radiation oncology. This includes innovative developments in the application of physical sciences to radiation oncology, spanning the broad range of advanced beam delivery and imaging, dosimetry, computation, modeling and data processing. Contributions proposing innovative methodological approaches or presenting original assessment on the clinical relevance of new technologies are welcome. Space is also given to review contributions on timely topics, as well as invited key reviews from renowned experts. Hence, the Radiation Physics section addresses contemporary cutting-edge research and methodological advancements for improved clinical practice, as well as reviews of relevant medical physics issues in radiation oncology, offering a fast review process and broad outreach.

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  1. To compare the clinical outcomes of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and fractionated radiation therapy (FRT) for primary liver cancer with portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT).

    Authors: Sujing Zhang, Li He, Changwen Bo, Shufang Yang, Yonghui An, Na Li, Yingchun Zhao, Liping Zhao, Wenhua Ma and Zheng Zheng
    Citation: Radiation Oncology 2021 16:149
  2. A range pull-back device, such as a machine-related range shifter (MRS) or a universal patient-related range shifter (UPRS), is needed in pencil beam scanning technique to treat shallow tumors.

    Authors: Haibo Lin, Chengyu Shi, Sheng Huang, Jiajian Shen, Minglei Kang, Qing Chen, Huifang Zhai, James McDonough, Zelig Tochner, Curtiland Deville, Charles B. Simone II and Stefan Both
    Citation: Radiation Oncology 2021 16:146
  3. Hypofractionation is increasingly being applied in radiotherapy for prostate cancer, requiring higher accuracy of daily treatment deliveries than in conventional image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). Different ada...

    Authors: Miriam Eckl, Gustavo R. Sarria, Sandra Springer, Marvin Willam, Arne M. Ruder, Volker Steil, Michael Ehmann, Frederik Wenz and Jens Fleckenstein
    Citation: Radiation Oncology 2021 16:145
  4. To use cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging to determine the impacts of patient characteristics on the magnitude of geometric setup errors and obtain patient-specific planning target volume (PTV) margi...

    Authors: Jurui Luo, Zhihai Yin, Zhen Zhang, Xiaomao Guo, Xiaoli Yu and Juanqi Wang
    Citation: Radiation Oncology 2021 16:143
  5. Quality assurance (QA) of treatment plans in clinical trials improves protocol compliance and patient outcomes. Retrospective use of knowledge-based-planning (KBP) in clinical trials has demonstrated improved ...

    Authors: Nicholas Hardcastle, Olivia Cook, Xenia Ray, Alisha Moore, Kevin L. Moore, David Pryor, Alana Rossi, Farshad Foroudi, Tomas Kron and Shankar Siva
    Citation: Radiation Oncology 2021 16:142
  6. Mega-voltage fan-beam Computed Tomography (MV-FBCT) holds potential in accurate determination of relative electron density (RED) and proton stopping power ratio (SPR) but is not widely available.

    Authors: Hao Gong, Shengzhen Tao, Justin D. Gagneur, Wei Liu, Jiajian Shen, Cynthia H. McCollough, Yanle Hu and Shuai Leng
    Citation: Radiation Oncology 2021 16:139
  7. Online adaptive radiotherapy has the potential to reduce toxicity for patients treated for rectal cancer because smaller planning target volumes (PTV) margins around the entire clinical target volume (CTV) are...

    Authors: Rianne de Jong, Jorrit Visser, Niek van Wieringen, Jan Wiersma, Debby Geijsen and Arjan Bel
    Citation: Radiation Oncology 2021 16:136
  8. This study aimed to (1) develop a fully residual deep convolutional neural network (CNN)-based segmentation software for computed tomography image segmentation of the male pelvic region and (2) demonstrate its...

    Authors: Hideaki Hirashima, Mitsuhiro Nakamura, Pascal Baillehache, Yusuke Fujimoto, Shota Nakagawa, Yusuke Saruya, Tatsumasa Kabasawa and Takashi Mizowaki
    Citation: Radiation Oncology 2021 16:135
  9. Both patient-specific dose recalculation and γ passing rate analysis are important for the quality assurance (QA) of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans. The aim of this study was to analyse the corr...

    Authors: Zhengwen Shen, Xia Tan, Shi Li, Xiumei Tian, Huanli Luo, Ying Wang and Fu Jin
    Citation: Radiation Oncology 2021 16:134
  10. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the performance of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans, planned for low-field strength magnetic resonance (MR) guided linear accelerator (linac)...

    Authors: Vanessa Da Silva Mendes, Lukas Nierer, Minglun Li, Stefanie Corradini, Michael Reiner, Florian Kamp, Maximilian Niyazi, Christopher Kurz, Guillaume Landry and Claus Belka
    Citation: Radiation Oncology 2021 16:133
  11. To establish regression models of physical and equivalent dose in 2 Gy per fraction (EQD2) plan parameters of two kinds of hybrid planning for stage III NSCLC.

    Authors: Hao Wang, Yongkang Zhou, Wutian Gan, Hua Chen, Ying Huang, Yanhua Duan, Aihui Feng, Yan Shao, Hengle Gu, Qing Kong and Zhiyong Xu
    Citation: Radiation Oncology 2021 16:119
  12. The purpose of this study is to comprehensively evaluate the suitability of Gafchromic EBT3 and EBT-XD film for dosimetric quality assurance in 0.35 T MR-guided radiotherapy.

    Authors: Ilma Xhaferllari, Joshua P. Kim, Ruchira Liyanage, Chang Liu, Dongsu Du, Anthony Doemer, Indrin J. Chetty and Ning Wen
    Citation: Radiation Oncology 2021 16:117
  13. 125I seed implantation has been found to show good therapeutic effects on tumors. Recent studies showed that three-dimensional (3D) print template-assisted 125I seed implantation can optimize radiation dose distr...

    Authors: Enli Chen, Yuwei Zhang, Hongtao Zhang, Chenfei Jia, Yansong Liang and Juan Wang
    Citation: Radiation Oncology 2021 16:115
  14. Daily anatomical deviations may distort the dose distribution in carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT), which may cause treatment failure. Therefore, this study aimed to perform re-planning to maintain the dose cover...

    Authors: Yang Li, Yoshiki Kubota, Masahiko Okamoto, Shintaro Shiba, Shohei Okazaki, Toshiaki Matsui, Mutsumi Tashiro, Takashi Nakano and Tatsuya Ohno
    Citation: Radiation Oncology 2021 16:111
  15. To investigate the potential role of a novel spatially fractionated radiation therapy (SFRT) method where heterogeneous dose patterns are created in target areas with virtual rods, straight or curving, of vari...

    Authors: Luca Cozzi, Sushil Beriwal, Esa Kuusela, Supriya Chopra, Hester Burger, Nanette Joubert, Antonella Fogliata, Jai Prakash Agarwal and Pat Kupelian
    Citation: Radiation Oncology 2021 16:110
  16. The purpose of this study is to develop a clinical application program that automatically calculates the effect for secondary cancer risk (SCR) of individual patient. The program was designed based on accurate...

    Authors: Dong-Jin Kang, Young-Joo Shin, Seonghoon Jeong, Jae-Yong Jung, Hakjae Lee and Boram Lee
    Citation: Radiation Oncology 2021 16:108
  17. We investigated the geometric and dosimetric impact of three-dimensional (3D) generative adversarial network (GAN)-based metal artifact reduction (MAR) algorithms on volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and...

    Authors: Mitsuhiro Nakamura, Megumi Nakao, Keiho Imanishi, Hideaki Hirashima and Yusuke Tsuruta
    Citation: Radiation Oncology 2021 16:96
  18. The Polaris product line from Northern Digital Inc. is well known for accurate optical tracking measurements in research and medical environments. The Spectra position sensor, to date often found in image guid...

    Authors: Giovanni Fattori, Antony John Lomax, Damien Charles Weber and Sairos Safai
    Citation: Radiation Oncology 2021 16:87
  19. To improve split-VMAT technique by optimizing treatment delivery time for deep-inspiration breath hold (DIBH) radiotherapy in left-sided breast cancer patients, when automatic beam-interruption devices are not...

    Authors: Sara Poeta, Younes Jourani, Alex De Caluwé, Robbe Van den Begin, Dirk Van Gestel and Nick Reynaert
    Citation: Radiation Oncology 2021 16:77
  20. Most studies on synthetic computed tomography (sCT) generation for brain rely on in-house developed methods. They often focus on performance rather than clinical feasibility. Therefore, the aim of this work wa...

    Authors: Minna Lerner, Joakim Medin, Christian Jamtheim Gustafsson, Sara Alkner, Carl Siversson and Lars E. Olsson
    Citation: Radiation Oncology 2021 16:66
  21. This work addresses a basic inconsistency in the way dose is accumulated in radiotherapy when predicting the biological effect based on the linear quadratic model (LQM). To overcome this inconsistency, we intr...

    Authors: Nina I. Niebuhr, Mona Splinter, Tilman Bostel, Joao Seco, Clemens M. Hentschke, Ralf O. Floca, Juliane Hörner-Rieber, Markus Alber, Peter Huber, Nils H. Nicolay and Asja Pfaffenberger
    Citation: Radiation Oncology 2021 16:65
  22. To explore whether a highly refined dose volume histograms (DVH) prediction model can improve the accuracy and reliability of knowledge-based volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) planning for cervical cancer.

    Authors: Mingli Wang, Huikuan Gu, Jiang Hu, Jian Liang, Sisi Xu and Zhenyu Qi
    Citation: Radiation Oncology 2021 16:58
  23. Whole brain radiation (WBRT) may lead to acute xerostomia and dry eye from incidental parotid and lacrimal exposure, respectively. We performed a prospective observational study to assess the incidence/severit...

    Authors: Panayiotis Mavroidis, Kevin A. Pearlstein, Dominic H. Moon, Victoria Xu, Trevor J. Royce, Ashley A. Weiner, Colette J. Shen, Lawrence B. Marks, Bhishamjit S. Chera, Shiva K. Das and Kyle Wang
    Citation: Radiation Oncology 2021 16:56
  24. Variation in target positioning represents a challenge to set-up reproducibility and reliability of dose delivery with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC). While on-...

    Authors: Colin S. Hill, Sarah Han-Oh, Zhi Cheng, Ken Kang-Hsin Wang, Jeffrey J. Meyer, Joseph M. Herman and Amol K. Narang
    Citation: Radiation Oncology 2021 16:53
  25. This study aimed to quantify errors by using a cine electronic portal imaging device (cine EPID) during deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) for left-sided breast cancer and to estimate the planning target volu...

    Authors: Yuka Ono, Michio Yoshimura, Tomohiro Ono, Takahiro Fujimoto, Yuki Miyabe, Yukinori Matsuo and Takashi Mizowaki
    Citation: Radiation Oncology 2021 16:49
  26. To compare linac-based mono-isocentric radiosurgery with Brainlab Elements Multiple Brain Mets (MBM) SRS and the Gamma Knife using a specific statistical method and to analyze the dosimetric impact of the targ...

    Authors: Michel Chea, Karen Fezzani, Julian Jacob, Marguerite Cuttat, Mathilde Croisé, Jean-Marc Simon, Loïc Feuvret, Charles-Ambroise Valery, Philippe Maingon, Mohamed-Amine Benadjaoud and Catherine Jenny
    Citation: Radiation Oncology 2021 16:45
  27. The Halcyon is a new machine from the Varian company. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dosimetry of the Halcyon in treatment of bilateral breast cancer with volumetric modulated arc therapy.

    Authors: Tao Sun, Xiutong Lin, Guifang Zhang, Qingtao Qiu, Chengqiang Li and Yong Yin
    Citation: Radiation Oncology 2021 16:35
  28. Proton therapy is a promising advancement in radiation oncology especially in terms of reducing normal tissue toxicity, although it is currently expensive and of limited availability. Here we estimated the ind...

    Authors: N. Patrik Brodin, Rafi Kabarriti, Clyde B. Schechter, Mark Pankuch, Vinai Gondi, Shalom Kalnicki, Madhur K. Garg and Wolfgang A. Tomé
    Citation: Radiation Oncology 2021 16:19
  29. Surface-guided radiation therapy can be used to continuously monitor a patient’s surface motions during radiotherapy by a non-irradiating, noninvasive optical surface imaging technique. In this study, machine ...

    Authors: Guangyu Wang, Zhibin Li, Guangjun Li, Guyu Dai, Qing Xiao, Long Bai, Yisong He, Yaxin Liu and Sen Bai
    Citation: Radiation Oncology 2021 16:13
  30. Whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) can impair patients’ cognitive function. Hippocampal avoidance during WBRT can potentially prevent this side effect. However, manually delineating the target area is time-consum...

    Authors: Kaicheng Pan, Lei Zhao, Song Gu, Yi Tang, Jiahao Wang, Wen Yu, Lucheng Zhu, Qi Feng, Ruipeng Su, Zhiyong Xu, Xiadong Li, Zhongxiang Ding, Xiaolong Fu, Shenglin Ma, Jun Yan, Shigong Kang…
    Citation: Radiation Oncology 2021 16:12
  31. We sought to establish a conversion curve to convert the RBE-weighted doses calculated by local effect model I (LEM) (LEM RBE-weighted doses) in patients with locally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (rNPC) ...

    Authors: Liwen Zhang, Weiwei Wang, Jiyi Hu, Jiade Lu and Lin Kong
    Citation: Radiation Oncology 2020 15:277
  32. An O-ring gantry-type linear accelerator (LINAC) with a 6-MV flattening filter-free (FFF) photon beam, Halcyon, includes a reference beam that contains representative information such as the percent depth dose...

    Authors: Min-Geon Choi, Martin Law, Do-Kun Yoon, Mikoto Tamura, Kenji Matsumoto, Masakazu Otsuka, Moo-Sub Kim, Shih-Kien Djeng, Hajime Monzen and Tae Suk Suh
    Citation: Radiation Oncology 2020 15:273
  33. Deep learning-based delineation of organs-at-risk for radiotherapy purposes has been investigated to reduce the time-intensiveness and inter-/intra-observer variability associated with manual delineation. We s...

    Authors: Ward van Rooij, Max Dahele, Hanne Nijhuis, Berend J. Slotman and Wilko F. Verbakel
    Citation: Radiation Oncology 2020 15:272
  34. To assess the effects of various treatment planning parameters to identify the optimal gap distance for precise two-segment total body irradiation (TBI) using helical tomotherapy (HT) with fixed jaw mode.

    Authors: HaiYang Wang, JunQi Liu, YiFei Pi, Qi Liu, Yang Mi, XiangXiang Yang, YueXin Guo and RuiTai Fan
    Citation: Radiation Oncology 2020 15:257
  35. Whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) remains an important treatment for over 200,000 cancer patients in the United States annually. Hippocampal-avoidant WBRT (HA-WBRT) reduces neurocognitive toxicity compared to st...

    Authors: Christine H. Feng, Mariel Cornell, Kevin L. Moore, Roshan Karunamuni and Tyler M. Seibert
    Citation: Radiation Oncology 2020 15:251
  36. Radiation therapy to upper abdominal sites is technically challenging due to motion of tumors and surrounding organs resulting from normal respiration. Breath-hold, using an Active Breathing Coordinator is one...

    Authors: Briana Farrugia, Richard Khor, Farshad Foroudi, Michael Chao, Kellie Knight and Caroline Wright
    Citation: Radiation Oncology 2020 15:250
  37. There is no ideal detector-phantom combination to perform patient specific quality assurance (PSQA) for Total Marrow (TMI) and Lymphoid (TMLI) Irradiation plan. In this study, 3D dose reconstruction using mega...

    Authors: Rajesh Thiyagarajan, Dayananda Shamurailatpam Sharma, Suryakant Kaushik, Mayur Sawant, K. Ganapathy, N. Arunai Nambi Raj, Srinivas Chilukuri, Sham C. Sundar, Kartikeswar Ch. Patro, Arjunan Manikandan, M. P. Noufal, Rangasamy Sivaraman, Jose Easow and Rakesh Jalali
    Citation: Radiation Oncology 2020 15:236
  38. This study investigated the feasibility and potential clinical benefit of utilizing a new proton treatment technique: Spot-scanning proton arc (SPArc) therapy for left-sided whole breast radiotherapy (WBRT) to...

    Authors: Sheng Chang, Gang Liu, Lewei Zhao, Joshua T. Dilworth, Weili Zheng, Saada Jawad, Di Yan, Peter Chen, Craig Stevens, Peyman Kabolizadeh, Xiaoqiang Li and Xuanfeng Ding
    Citation: Radiation Oncology 2020 15:232
  39. Proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) represents an interesting option for the treatment of breast cancer (BC) patients with nodal involvement. Here we compare tangential 3D-CRT and VMAT to PBS proton therapy (PT)...

    Authors: Giorgio Cartechini, Francesco Fracchiolla, Loris Menegotti, Emanuele Scifoni, Chiara La Tessa, Marco Schwarz, Paolo Farace and Francesco Tommasino
    Citation: Radiation Oncology 2020 15:228
  40. Rotational beam delivery enables concurrent acquisition of cone-beam CT (CBCT), thereby facilitating further geometric verification of patient setup during radiation treatment. However, it is challenging to ac...

    Authors: Jihun Kim, Ki Chang Keum, Ho Lee, Chae-Seon Hong, Kwangwoo Park and Jin Sung Kim
    Citation: Radiation Oncology 2020 15:224
  41. In this study, we employed a gated recurrent unit (GRU)-based recurrent neural network (RNN) using dosimetric information induced by individual beam to predict the dose-volume histogram (DVH) and investigated ...

    Authors: Wufei Cao, Yongdong Zhuang, Lixin Chen and Xiaowei Liu
    Citation: Radiation Oncology 2020 15:216
  42. Online adaptive radiotherapy is intended to prevent plan degradation caused by inter-fractional tumor volume and shape changes, but time limitations make online re-planning challenging. The aim of this study w...

    Authors: Janita E. van Timmeren, Madalyne Chamberlain, Jérôme Krayenbuehl, Lotte Wilke, Stefanie Ehrbar, Marta Bogowicz, Callum Hartley, Mariangela Zamburlini, Nicolaus Andratschke, Helena Garcia Schüler, Matea Pavic, Panagiotis Balermpas, Chaehee Ryu, Matthias Guckenberger and Stephanie Tanadini-Lang
    Citation: Radiation Oncology 2020 15:203
  43. To investigate the feasibility of a knowledge-based automated intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning technique for locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) radiotherapy.

    Authors: Penggang Bai, Xing Weng, Kerun Quan, Jihong Chen, Yitao Dai, Yuanji Xu, Fasheng Lin, Jing Zhong, Tianming Wu and Chuanben Chen
    Citation: Radiation Oncology 2020 15:188
  44. The growing acceptance and recognition of Surface Guided Radiation Therapy (SGRT) as a promising imaging technique has supported its recent spread in a large number of radiation oncology facilities. Although t...

    Authors: P. Freislederer, M. Kügele, M. Öllers, A. Swinnen, T.-O. Sauer, C. Bert, D. Giantsoudi, S. Corradini and V. Batista
    Citation: Radiation Oncology 2020 15:187

    The Correction to this article has been published in Radiation Oncology 2020 15:244

  45. Automatic tumor segmentation based on Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) has shown to be a valuable tool in treatment planning and clinical decision making. We investigate the influence of 7 MRI input channe...

    Authors: Lars Bielak, Nicole Wiedenmann, Arnie Berlin, Nils Henrik Nicolay, Deepa Darshini Gunashekar, Leonard Hägele, Thomas Lottner, Anca-Ligia Grosu and Michael Bock
    Citation: Radiation Oncology 2020 15:181
  46. Impaired function of masticatory muscles will lead to trismus. Routine delineation of these muscles during planning may improve dose tracking and facilitate dose reduction resulting in decreased radiation-rela...

    Authors: Wen Chen, Yimin Li, Brandon A. Dyer, Xue Feng, Shyam Rao, Stanley H. Benedict, Quan Chen and Yi Rong
    Citation: Radiation Oncology 2020 15:176
  47. Total scalp irradiation presents technical and dosimetric challenges. While reports suggest that HyperArc, a new stereotactic radiosurgery planning technique applied to non-coplanar volumetric-modulated arc th...

    Authors: Shoki Inui, Yoshihiro Ueda, Shingo Ohira, Haruhi Tsuru, Masaru Isono, Masayoshi Miyazaki, Masahiko Koizumi and Teruki Teshima
    Citation: Radiation Oncology 2020 15:175
  48. This study aimed to develop a framework for optimising prostate intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) based on patient-specific tumour biology, derived from multiparametric MRI (mpMRI). The framework include...

    Authors: E. J. Her, A. Haworth, H. M. Reynolds, Y. Sun, A. Kennedy, V. Panettieri, M. Bangert, S. Williams and M. A. Ebert
    Citation: Radiation Oncology 2020 15:172

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