Combined low initial DNA damage and high radiation-induced apoptosis confers clinical resistance to long-term toxicity in breast cancer patients treated with high-dose radiotherapy
- Luis Alberto Henríquez-Hernández1, 2, 3Email author,
- Ruth Carmona-Vigo1,
- Beatriz Pinar1, 2, 3,
- Elisa Bordón1, 2, 3,
- Marta Lloret1, 2, 3,
- María Isabel Núñez4,
- Carlos Rodríguez-Gallego2, 5 and
- Pedro C Lara1, 2, 3
© Henríquez-Hernández et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2011
Received: 26 January 2011
Accepted: 6 June 2011
Published: 6 June 2011
Either higher levels of initial DNA damage or lower levels of radiation-induced apoptosis in peripheral blood lymphocytes have been associated to increased risk for develop late radiation-induced toxicity. It has been recently published that these two predictive tests are inversely related. The aim of the present study was to investigate the combined role of both tests in relation to clinical radiation-induced toxicity in a set of breast cancer patients treated with high dose hyperfractionated radical radiotherapy.
Peripheral blood lymphocytes were taken from 26 consecutive patients with locally advanced breast carcinoma treated with high-dose hyperfractioned radical radiotherapy. Acute and late cutaneous and subcutaneous toxicity was evaluated using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group morbidity scoring schema. The mean follow-up of survivors (n = 13) was 197.23 months. Radiosensitivity of lymphocytes was quantified as the initial number of DNA double-strand breaks induced per Gy and per DNA unit (200 Mbp). Radiation-induced apoptosis (RIA) at 1, 2 and 8 Gy was measured by flow cytometry using annexin V/propidium iodide.
Mean DSB/Gy/DNA unit obtained was 1.70 ± 0.83 (range 0.63-4.08; median, 1.46). Radiation-induced apoptosis increased with radiation dose (median 12.36, 17.79 and 24.83 for 1, 2, and 8 Gy respectively). We observed that those "expected resistant patients" (DSB values lower than 1.78 DSB/Gy per 200 Mbp and RIA values over 9.58, 14.40 or 24.83 for 1, 2 and 8 Gy respectively) were at low risk of suffer severe subcutaneous late toxicity (HR 0.223, 95%CI 0.073-0.678, P = 0.008; HR 0.206, 95%CI 0.063-0.677, P = 0.009; HR 0.239, 95%CI 0.062-0.929, P = 0.039, for RIA at 1, 2 and 8 Gy respectively) in multivariate analysis.
A radiation-resistant profile is proposed, where those patients who presented lower levels of initial DNA damage and higher levels of radiation induced apoptosis were at low risk of suffer severe subcutaneous late toxicity after clinical treatment at high radiation doses in our series. However, due to the small sample size, other prospective studies with higher number of patients are needed to validate these results.
List of abbreviations
locally advanced breast cancer
peripheral blood lymphocytes
Locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) is a relatively infrequently tumour which poses a significant clinical challenge. The management of LABC has evolved considerably. Initially, patients with LABC were treated with radical mastectomy [1, 2]; thereafter, systemic therapy was subsequently incorporated along with surgery and radiotherapy (RT) . However, even with such combined modality therapy, the long-term survival rate is approximately 50% among patients with LABC . In cases with inadequate response to neoadjuvant systemic therapies and inability to perform surgery, RT is the only possible treatment .
Better local control outcomes, with acceptable toxicity, have been obtained by using high total doses of radiation administered in two small fractions per day (hyperfractionation, HF) . HF allows escalation of the biologically effective dose to the tumour without a significant increase in late complications . The radio therapeutic doses received by the patient are limited by the tolerance of the normal tissues. Different patients given a standardized treatment can exhibit a range of normal acute and/or late tissue reactions [8, 9]. Thus, there is both a dose dependence and a variability in individual radiosensitivity, where genetic [10, 11] and constitutional factors [9, 12] inherit to each patient could exert an influence.
The prediction of radiation-induced toxicity could help to select the most appropriate treatment for each patient. Many predictive factors have been described, including initial DNA damage , cell apoptosis , or gene expression patterns [15, 16]. In previous studies, we have reported an association between the initial number of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) induced by x-rays in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and radiation-toxicity [17, 18]. Thus, increasing numbers of radiation induced DSB were related to severe late subcutaneous toxicity in LABC patients treated with HF . In the other hand, determination of radiation-induced apoptosis (RIA) in PBL by flow cytometry analysis has also been proposed as an approach for predicting normal tissue responses following radiotherapy [19, 20]. Patients suffering of late toxicity after RT showed reduced rates of RIA in several tumour locations [20–22]. Moreover, we have recently reported an inverse association between the initial DNA damage and RIA in LABC patients .
Taking into account the above background and our previously observations, we explored the clinical association between initial DNA damage and RIA in relation to radiation-induced toxicity in the set of LABC patients treated with high dose HF radical RT with long-term follow-up where this association have been previously observed .
Characteristics of Patients
Characteristics of patients studied
Mean ± SD
57.62 ± 12.9
100 ± 10.6
Received dose (Gy)
78.48 ± 5.7
Maximum dose (Gy)
87.36 ± 8.8
Number of patients who developed acute/late toxicity due to radiotherapy
Patients were treated with a dose-escalation radiation therapy schedule using hyperfractionation. All patients received 60 Gy to the whole breast over a period of 5 weeks in two daily fractions of 1.2 Gy, separated by at least 6 h on 5 days each week. A boost covering the tumour plus margins was prescribed at a dose of 9.4-21.6 Gy . Peripheral nodes were treated by conventional fractionation (1.8/2Gy/day) at doses of 50-70 Gy. Supraclavicular and axillary lymph node areas were treated with an anterior field and a posterior axillary compensating field. Doses were prescribed to the mid-plane of the axilla and at a depth of 3 cm in the supraclavicular area. The internal mammary chain was treated by a direct anterior field with the dose prescribed at depth of 3 cm. Doses to the breast ranged from 64.8 Gy to 81.6 Gy (mean 77.5 ± 5.7 Gy; median 81.6 Gy). Maximum point doses ranged from 62.8 to 101.7 Gy (mean 87.4 ± 8.8; median 89.7 Gy).
Analysis of Initial DNA Damage
Apoptosis data obtained after the irradiation of PBL at 1, 2 and 8 Gy
Mean ± SD
1.70 ± 0.83
13.33 ± 7.26
18.20 ± 7.82
29.70 ± 10.05
13.08 ± 7.21
7.93 ± 2.68
Apoptosis assay and flow cytometry
RIA analyses were performed as previously reported [21, 22]. PBL were irradiated with 0, 1, 2 and 8 Gy. After irradiation, samples were incubated for 24 hours at 37°C and 5% CO2. After extraction of cellular pellet, it was resuspended in 100 μl Annexin V buffer Kit (Pharmingen, Becton Dickinson). After the addition of 4 μl of Annexin-V-FITC and 10 μl of propidium iodure (PI), cells were incubated during 15 minutes at room temperature in the dark. Finally, 400 μl of Annexin V buffer Kit were added. Every assay was made in triplicate.
The flow cytometry analysis was performed in a FACScalibur (Becton Dickinson, San José, CA) using a 488 nm argon laser, and each sample was analyzed in a Macintosh Quadra 650 minicomputer (Apple computer Inc., Cupertino, CA) as previously reported . Data were analyzed using the CellQuest program (Becton Dickinson, San José, CA) calculating early and late apoptosis levels. RIA is defined as the percentage of total PBL death induced by the radiation dose minus the spontaneous cell death (control, 0 Gy).
Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS Statistical Package (version 15.0 for Windows). The cut-off values for continuous variables were the median and the tertiles of the distribution, as previously reported [17, 23]. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using Cox regression. All tests were two sided and statistical significance level was established for a P value less than 0.05. All samples were processed anonymously.
Results and Discussion
Radiation-induced toxicity in breast cancer patients
Distribution of patients according to expected radiation sensitivity after the irradiation of peripheral blood lymphocytes at 1, 2 and 8 Gy
Expected radiation sensitivity
RIA 1 Gy
RIA 2 Gy
RIA 8 Gy
High (↑ DSB, ↓ RIA)
Low (↓ DSB, ↑ RIA)
Initial DNA damage levels in breast cancer patients
Initial DNA damage was determined as radiation-induced double-strand breaks (DSB) in irradiated lymphocyte from all 26 LABC patients. There was a wide variation in DSB among patients (Table 3) with a mean value of 1.70 ± 0.83 DSB/Gy per 200 Mbp (median, 1.46; range, 0.63-4.08). These results support the suggestion that variation in cell radiosensitivity can be detected in vitro using radiosensitivity assays on lymphocytes derived from normal tissues of cancer patients prior to radiotherapy [18, 28–30]. This wide variation in DNA DSB can be attributed to variation between individuals more than to variation due to technical or sampling errors [18, 31, 32]. Initial DNA damage followed a normal distribution (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, P > 0.05), and data obtained from the present group of patients matched previously published results for breast cancer patients [17, 18]. However, other molecular events such as DNA repair foci or DNA-loops should be taken into account for the correct interpretation of data. It has been observed that DNA DSB in residual foci and relaxation of DNA-loops may be linked to induction of radiation-induced apoptosis in lymphocytes [33–35].
We have previously demonstrated a relation between the sensitivity of in vitro-irradiated peripheral blood lymphocytes and the risk of developing late toxic effects after RT in the present set of patients . However, the predictive value of initial DNA damage is controversial and different findings have been reported on this regard. Thus, we agree with some authors [28, 30, 36] and we disagree with some others . Moreover, more initial DSB have been detected in lymphocytes from normal patients as compared to radiosensitive . In our opinion, it is important to highlight that the predictive role of initial DNA damage was observed in patients treated with high-dose of radiation, where the toxicity reactions are more evident. Differences in the protocol treatment (RT schedule: dose and type of fractionation) and in the methodology used (PFGE, comet assay, gamma-H2AX induction) could help to explain the discrepancies observed.
Radiation-induced apoptosis in breast cancer patients
Data of RIA were available in all 26 breast cancer patients as shown in Table 3. RIA increased with radiation dose and data fitted to a semi logarithmic model as follows: RIA = β ln(Gy) + α. This mathematical model was defined by two constants: the coefficient in origin α (determining the spontaneous apoptosis) and the coefficient β (defining the slope of the curve) [21, 22, 25, 39]. As expected, RIA at 1, 2 and 8 Gy, as well as α and β constants followed a normal distribution (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, P > 0.05). There is an important variation in the ex vivo susceptibility of normal cells against ionizing radiation. It has been suggested that the radiation-induced damage measured on lymphocytes could be proportional to the acute damage evaluated on the skin of treated patients . Anyhow, it is possible to estimate the cellular radiosensitivity of PBL of patients analyzing the RIA rate by annexin V/PI staining flow cytometric analysis, defining an intrinsic individual value of radiosensitivity inherit to each patient.
Radiation-induced apoptosis has been proposed as a reliable method for prediction of normal tissue toxicity after radiotherapy by us [21, 22] and other authors [14, 19, 20]. However, some other studies reported no correlations between individual radiosensitivity of cancer patients and radiation-induced apoptosis in PBLs [41, 42]. The lack of uniformity in experimental design helps to understand these differences. Thus, the cells used in the assay (total PBL, Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines, CD(3+) lymphocytes), the radiation protocol, or the analysis strategy are critical to make possible the comparison among studies.
Association of initial DNA damage and radiation-induced apoptosis with normal tissue toxicity
As previously published, increasing numbers of radiation induced DSB were related to severe late toxicity in breast cancer patients . Thus, among patients receiving the highest radiation doses (81.6 Gy), those who showed higher levels of initial DNA damage had a greater risk of severe subcutaneous toxicity. In the present set of patients, no association was observed between DNA DSB or RIA (at any radiation dose), α or β constants and normal tissue toxicity, possibly due to the small sample size (data not shown). An association between the initial DNA damage and the radiation-induced apoptosis, as a consequence of x-ray, may exist [43, 44]. DNA DSB are assumed to be the most important lesion to induce apoptosis . Depending on the severity of the DNA damage and the cell type involved, cells may undergo apoptosis instead of attempting to repair the damage . Lymphocytes are particularly sensitive to apoptosis, partly because they induce Bax expression in response to ionizing radiation exposure . Lymphocytes from patients who suffered Ataxia-telangiectasia, Bloom syndrome, or Fanconi anaemia showed absence of induction of p53 and lower levels of Bax [47–49]. Apoptosis is initiated following DSB through an ATM-directed pathway . This could explain the fact that patients affected by the Ataxia-Telangiectasia syndrome show the lowest rates of RIA. In that sense, we have recently reported an inverse association between the initial DNA damage and RIA in LABC patients . Defective apoptotic response to radiation in PBLs could help to explain this inverse relation .
Univariate analysis for grades 3-4 late subcutaneous toxicity in the whole series of patients (n = 26) and in patients who received higher doses of RT (n = 19)
Low DSB-High RIA 1Gy
Low DSB-High RIA 2Gy
Low DSB-High RIA 8Gy
Higher dose (≥81.6Gy)
Low DSB-High RIA 1Gy
Low DSB-High RIA 2Gy
Low DSB-High RIA 8Gy
Multivariate analysis for grades 3-4 late subcutaneous toxicity in the whole series of patients (n = 26)
Low DSB-High RIA 1Gy
Low DSB-High RIA 2Gy
Low DSB-High RIA 8Gy
Initial DNA double-strand breaks and radiation-induced apoptosis in peripheral blood lymphocytes have been proposed as reliable methods for prediction of radiation-induced late toxicity in normal tissues [11, 17, 20]. We have observed, for the first time, a combined role of both parameters. Thus, we propose a radiation-resistance profile where those patients who present lower levels of initial DNA damage and higher levels of radiation induced apoptosis were at low risk of suffer severe subcutaneous late toxicity in our series. This finding opens the possibility to develop new predictor assays taking into account the initial DNA damage and radiation-induced apoptosis levels, and introduces new data which may help to understand and define the complex mechanisms behind the normal tissue toxicity. Nonetheless, due to the small sample size, the present results need to be validated in bigger clinical series.
This work was subsidized by a grant from the Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia (CICYT: SAF 2004-00889) and Fundación del Instituto Canario de Investigación del Cáncer (FICIC).
- Haagensen CD, Stout AP: Carcinoma of the Breast. II-Criteria of Operability. Ann Surg 1943, 118:1032–1051.PubMedView Article
- Haagensen CD, Stout AP: Carcinoma of the Breast: Ii. Criteria of Operability. Ann Surg 1943, 118:859–870.PubMed
- Toonkel LM, Fix I, Jacobson LH, Bamberg N, Wallach CB: Locally advanced breast carcinoma: results with combined regional therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1986, 12:1583–1587.PubMedView Article
- Therasse P, Mauriac L, Welnicka-Jaskiewicz M, Bruning P, Cufer T, Bonnefoi H, Tomiak E, Pritchard KI, Hamilton A, Piccart MJ: Final results of a randomized phase III trial comparing cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, and fluorouracil with a dose-intensified epirubicin and cyclophosphamide + filgrastim as neoadjuvant treatment in locally advanced breast cancer: an EORTC-NCIC-SAKK multicenter study. J Clin Oncol 2003, 21:843–850.PubMedView Article
- Shenkier T, Weir L, Levine M, Olivotto I, Whelan T, Reyno L: Clinical practice guidelines for the care and treatment of breast cancer: 15. Treatment for women with stage III or locally advanced breast cancer. CMAJ 2004, 170:983–994.PubMedView Article
- Budach W, Hehr T, Budach V, Belka C, Dietz K: A meta-analysis of hyperfractionated and accelerated radiotherapy and combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy regimens in unresected locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. BMC Cancer 2006, 6:28.PubMedView Article
- Baumann M, Bentzen SM, Ang KK: Hyperfractionated radiotherapy in head and neck cancer: a second look at the clinical data. Radiother Oncol 1998, 46:127–130.PubMedView Article
- Burnet NG, Johansen J, Turesson I, Nyman J, Peacock JH: Describing patients' normal tissue reactions: concerning the possibility of individualising radiotherapy dose prescriptions based on potential predictive assays of normal tissue radiosensitivity. Steering Committee of the BioMed2 European Union Concerted Action Programme on the Development of Predictive Tests of Normal Tissue Response to Radiation Therapy. Int J Cancer 1998, 79:606–613.PubMedView Article
- Turesson I, Nyman J, Holmberg E, Oden A: Prognostic factors for acute and late skin reactions in radiotherapy patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1996, 36:1065–1075.PubMedView Article
- Meyn MS: Ataxia-telangiectasia and cellular responses to DNA damage. Cancer Res 1995, 55:5991–6001.PubMed
- Ozsahin M, Ozsahin H, Shi Y, Larsson B, Wurgler FE, Crompton NE: Rapid assay of intrinsic radiosensitivity based on apoptosis in human CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocytes. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1997, 38:429–440.PubMedView Article
- Moody AM, Mayles WP, Bliss JM, A'Hern RP, Owen JR, Regan J, Broad B, Yarnold JR: The influence of breast size on late radiation effects and association with radiotherapy dose inhomogeneity. Radiother Oncol 1994, 33:106–112.PubMedView Article
- McMillan TJ, Tobi S, Mateos S, Lemon C: The use of DNA double-strand break quantification in radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2001, 49:373–377.PubMedView Article
- Crompton NE, Miralbell R, Rutz HP, Ersoy F, Sanal O, Wellmann D, Bieri S, Coucke PA, Emery GC, Shi YQ, et al.: Altered apoptotic profiles in irradiated patients with increased toxicity. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1999, 45:707–714.PubMedView Article
- Henriquez Hernandez LA, Lara PC, Pinar B, Bordon E, Rodriguez Gallego C, Bilbao C, Fernandez Perez L, Flores Morales A: Constitutive gene expression profile segregates toxicity in locally advanced breast cancer patients treated with high-dose hyperfractionated radical radiotherapy. Radiat Oncol 2009, 4:17.PubMedView Article
- Rodningen OK, Borresen-Dale AL, Alsner J, Hastie T, Overgaard J: Radiation-induced gene expression in human subcutaneous fibroblasts is predictive of radiation-induced fibrosis. Radiother Oncol 2008, 86:314–320.PubMedView Article
- Pinar B, Lara PC, Lloret M, Bordon E, Nunez MI, Villalobos M, Guerrero R, Luna JD, Ruiz de Almodovar JM: Radiation-induced DNA damage as a predictor of long-term toxicity in locally advanced breast cancer patients treated with high-dose hyperfractionated radical radiotherapy. Radiat Res 2007, 168:415–422.PubMedView Article
- Ruiz de Almodovar JM, Guirado D, Isabel Nunez M, Lopez E, Guerrero R, Valenzuela MT, Villalobos M, del Moral R: Individualization of radiotherapy in breast cancer patients: possible usefulness of a DNA damage assay to measure normal cell radiosensitivity. Radiother Oncol 2002, 62:327–333.PubMedView Article
- Barber JB, West CM, Kiltie AE, Roberts SA, Scott D: Detection of individual differences in radiation-induced apoptosis of peripheral blood lymphocytes in normal individuals, ataxia telangiectasia homozygotes and heterozygotes, and breast cancer patients after radiotherapy. Radiat Res 2000, 153:570–578.PubMedView Article
- Ozsahin M, Crompton NE, Gourgou S, Kramar A, Li L, Shi Y, Sozzi WJ, Zouhair A, Mirimanoff RO, Azria D: CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocyte apoptosis can predict radiation-induced late toxicity: a prospective study in 399 patients. Clin Cancer Res 2005, 11:7426–7433.PubMedView Article
- Bordon E, Henriquez Hernandez LA, Lara PC, Pinar B, Fontes F, Rodriguez Gallego C, Lloret M: Prediction of clinical toxicity in localized cervical carcinoma by radio-induced apoptosis study in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). Radiat Oncol 2009, 4:58.PubMedView Article
- Bordon E, Henriquez-Hernandez LA, Lara PC, Ruiz A, Pinar B, Rodriguez-Gallego C, Lloret M: Prediction of clinical toxicity in locally advanced head and neck cancer patients by radio-induced apoptosis in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). Radiat Oncol 2010, 5:4.PubMedView Article
- Pinar B, Henriquez-Hernandez LA, Lara PC, Bordon E, Rodriguez-Gallego C, Lloret M, Nunez MI, De Almodovar MR: Radiation induced apoptosis and initial DNA damage are inversely related in locally advanced breast cancer patients. Radiat Oncol 2010, 5:85.PubMedView Article
- Nunez MI, Guerrero MR, Lopez E, del Moral MR, Valenzuela MT, Siles E, Villalobos M, Pedraza V, Peacock JH, Ruiz de Almodovar JM: DNA damage and prediction of radiation response in lymphocytes and epidermal skin human cells. Int J Cancer 1998, 76:354–361.PubMedView Article
- Bordon E, Henriquez-Hernandez LA, Lara PC, Pinar B, Rodriguez-Gallego C, Lloret M: Role of CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes and Natural Killer cells in the prediction of radiation-induced late toxicity in cervical cancer patients. Int J Radiat Biol 2011, 87:424–431.PubMedView Article
- Johansson S, Svensson H, Denekamp J: Dose response and latency for radiation-induced fibrosis, edema, and neuropathy in breast cancer patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2002, 52:1207–1219.PubMedView Article
- Coles CE, Moody AM, Wilson CB, Burnet NG: Reduction of radiotherapy-induced late complications in early breast cancer: the role of intensity-modulated radiation therapy and partial breast irradiation. Part II--Radiotherapy strategies to reduce radiation-induced late effects. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 2005, 17:98–110.
- Dickson J, Magee B, Stewart A, West CM: Relationship between residual radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks in cultured fibroblasts and late radiation reactions: a comparison of training and validation cohorts of breast cancer patients. Radiother Oncol 2002, 62:321–326.PubMedView Article
- Hoeller U, Borgmann K, Bonacker M, Kuhlmey A, Bajrovic A, Jung H, Alberti W, Dikomey E: Individual radiosensitivity measured with lymphocytes may be used to predict the risk of fibrosis after radiotherapy for breast cancer. Radiother Oncol 2003, 69:137–144.PubMedView Article
- Zhou PK, Sproston AR, Marples B, West CM, Margison GP, Hendry JH: The radiosensitivity of human fibroblast cell lines correlates with residual levels of DNA double-strand breaks. Radiother Oncol 1998, 47:271–276.PubMedView Article
- Geara FB, Peters LJ, Ang KK, Wike JL, Sivon SS, Guttenberger R, Callender DL, Malaise EP, Brock WA: Intrinsic radiosensitivity of normal human fibroblasts and lymphocytes after high-and low-dose-rate irradiation. Cancer Res 1992, 52:6348–6352.PubMed
- O'Driscoll MC, Scott D, Orton CJ, Kiltie AE, Davidson SE, Hunter RD, West CM: Radiation-induced micronuclei in human fibroblasts in relation to clonogenic radiosensitivity. Br J Cancer 1998, 78:1559–1563.PubMedView Article
- Belyaev IY: Radiation-induced DNA repair foci: spatio-temporal aspects of formation, application for assessment of radiosensitivity and biological dosimetry. Mutat Res 2010, 704:132–141.PubMedView Article
- Belyaev IY, Eriksson S, Nygren J, Torudd J, Harms-Ringdahl M: Effects of ethidium bromide on DNA loop organisation in human lymphocytes measured by anomalous viscosity time dependence and single cell gel electrophoresis. Biochim Biophys Acta 1999, 1428:348–356.PubMed
- Torudd J, Protopopova M, Sarimov R, Nygren J, Eriksson S, Markova E, Chovanec M, Selivanova G, Belyaev IY: Dose-response for radiation-induced apoptosis, residual 53BP1 foci and DNA-loop relaxation in human lymphocytes. Int J Radiat Biol 2005, 81:125–138.PubMedView Article
- Kiltie AE, Orton CJ, Ryan AJ, Roberts SA, Marples B, Davidson SE, Hunter RD, Margison GP, West CM, Hendry JH: A correlation between residual DNA double-strand breaks and clonogenic measurements of radiosensitivity in fibroblasts from preradiotherapy cervix cancer patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1997, 39:1137–1144.PubMedView Article
- Lopez E, Guerrero R, Nunez MI, del Moral R, Villalobos M, Martinez-Galan J, Valenzuela MT, Munoz-Gamez JA, Oliver FJ, Martin-Oliva D, Ruiz de Almodovar JM: Early and late skin reactions to radiotherapy for breast cancer and their correlation with radiation-induced DNA damage in lymphocytes. Breast Cancer Res 2005, 7:R690–698.PubMedView Article
- Bourton EC, Plowman PN, Smith D, Arlett CF, Parris CN: Prolonged expression of the gamma-H2AX DNA repair biomarker correlates with excess acute and chronic toxicity from radiotherapy treatment. Int J Cancer 2011, in press.
- Saavedra MM, Henriquez-Hernandez LA, Lara PC, Pinar B, Rodriguez-Gallego C, Lloret M: Amifostine modulates radio-induced apoptosis of peripheral blood lymphocytes in head and neck cancer patients. J Radiat Res (Tokyo) 2010, 51:603–607.View Article
- Dikomey E, Brammer I, Johansen J, Bentzen SM, Overgaard J: Relationship between DNA double-strand breaks, cell killing, and fibrosis studied in confluent skin fibroblasts derived from breast cancer patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2000, 46:481–490.PubMedView Article
- Greve B, Dreffke K, Rickinger A, Konemann S, Fritz E, Eckardt-Schupp F, Amler S, Sauerland C, Braselmann H, Sauter W, et al.: Multicentric investigation of ionising radiation-induced cell death as a predictive parameter of individual radiosensitivity. Apoptosis 2009, 14:226–235.PubMedView Article
- Wistop A, Keller U, Sprung CN, Grabenbauer GG, Sauer R, Distel LV: Individual radiosensitivity does not correlate with radiation-induced apoptosis in lymphoblastoid cell lines or CD3+ lymphocytes. Strahlenther Onkol 2005, 181:326–335.PubMedView Article
- McKay BC, Ljungman M, Rainbow AJ: Persistent DNA damage induced by ultraviolet light inhibits p21waf1 and bax expression: implications for DNA repair, UV sensitivity and the induction of apoptosis. Oncogene 1998, 17:545–555.PubMedView Article
- Dumaz N, Duthu A, Ehrhart JC, Drougard C, Appella E, Anderson CW, May P, Sarasin A, Daya-Grosjean L: Prolonged p53 protein accumulation in trichothiodystrophy fibroblasts dependent on unrepaired pyrimidine dimers on the transcribed strands of cellular genes. Mol Carcinog 1997, 20:340–347.PubMedView Article
- Story MD, Voehringer DW, Malone CG, Hobbs ML, Meyn RE: Radiation-induced apoptosis in sensitive and resistant cells isolated from a mouse lymphoma. Int J Radiat Biol 1994, 66:659–668.PubMed
- Sionov RV, Haupt Y: The cellular response to p53: the decision between life and death. Oncogene 1999, 18:6145–6157.PubMedView Article
- Duchaud E, Ridet A, Delic Y, Cundari E, Moustacchi E, Rosselli F: Changes in the radiation-induced apoptotic response in homozygotes and heterozygotes for the ataxia-telangiectasia gene. C R Acad Sci III 1994, 317:983–989.PubMed
- Mori M, Benotmane MA, Tirone I, Hooghe-Peters EL, Desaintes C: Transcriptional response to ionizing radiation in lymphocyte subsets. Cell Mol Life Sci 2005, 62:1489–1501.PubMedView Article
- Rosselli F, Ridet A, Soussi T, Duchaud E, Alapetite C, Moustacchi E: p53-dependent pathway of radio-induced apoptosis is altered in Fanconi anemia. Oncogene 1995, 10:9–17.PubMed
- Cann KL, Hicks GG: Regulation of the cellular DNA double-strand break response. Biochem Cell Biol 2007, 85:663–674.PubMedView Article
- Crompton NE, Shi YQ, Emery GC, Wisser L, Blattmann H, Maier A, Li L, Schindler D, Ozsahin H, Ozsahin M: Sources of variation in patient response to radiation treatment. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2001, 49:547–554.PubMedView Article
- Svensson JP, Stalpers LJ, Esveldt-van Lange RE, Franken NA, Haveman J, Klein B, Turesson I, Vrieling H, Giphart-Gassler M: Analysis of gene expression using gene sets discriminates cancer patients with and without late radiation toxicity. PLoS Med 2006, 3:e422.PubMedView Article
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.