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Table 1 Patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics

From: Risk factors for osteoradionecrosis of the jaw in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

Characteristic All patients
(n = 616) (%)
Non-ORNJ
(n = 570) (%)
ORNJ
(n = 46) (%)
P value
Patient-related factors     
Age, years [median (range)] 65 (23–89) 65.5 (23–89) 64.5 (37–82) 0.2460
Sex     
 Male 513 (83) 473 (83) 40 (87)  
 Female 103 (17) 97 (17) 6 (13) 0.6810
History of smoking     
 No 464 (75) 133 (23) 7 (15)  
 Yes 140 (23) 426 (75) 38 (83) 0.2710
 Missing 12 (2) 11 (2) 1 (2)  
History of alcohol use     
 No 150 (24) 139 (24) 11 (24)  
 Yes 449 (73) 416 (73) 33 (72) 1.0000
 Missing 17 (3) 15 (3) 2 (4)  
Diabetes mellitus     
 No 507 (82) 470 (82) 37 (80)  
 Yes 101 (16) 93 (16) 8 (17) 0.8350
 Missing 8 (1) 7 (1) 1 (2)  
Performance status     
 0 180 (29) 161 (28) 19 (41)  
 1 286 (46) 272 (48) 14 (30)  
 2 83 (13) 76 (13) 7 (15)  
 3 13 (2) 13 (2) 0 (0) 0.0968
 Missing 54 (9) 48 (8) 6 (13)  
Pre-RT dental evaluation     
 No 128 (21) 118 (21) 10 (22)  
 Yes 488 (79) 452 (75) 36 (78) 0.8510
Pre-RT tooth extraction     
 No 393 (64) 368 (65) 25 (54)  
 Yes 223 (36) 202 (35) 21 (46) 0.2020
Post-RT tooth extraction     
 No 567 (92) 533 (94) 34 (74)  
 Yes 49 (8) 37 (6) 12 (26)  < 0.0001
Tumor-related factors     
Tumor site     
 OPC 169 (27) 147 (26) 22 (48)  
 OC 161 (26) 143 (25) 18 (39)  
 HPC 226 (37) 223 (39) 3 (7)  
 NPC 42 (7) 40 (7) 2 (4)  
 CUP 18 (3) 17 (3) 1 (2) 0.0001
T-stage     
 T0–2 370 (60) 338 (59) 32 (70)  
 T3–4 246 (40) 232 (41) 14 (30) 0.2110
Nodal status     
 Negative 131 (21) 123 (22) 8 (17)  
 Positive 485 (79) 447 (78) 38 (83) 0.5790
Treatment-related factors     
Pre-RT surgery     
 No 378 (61) 354 (62) 24 (52)  
 Yes 238 (39) 216 (38) 22 (48) 0.2090
Pre-RT mandible surgery     
 No 565 (92) 526 (92) 39 (85)  
 Yes 51 (8) 44 (8) 7 (15) 0.0908
Induction chemotherapy     
 No 563 (91) 520 (91) 43 (93)  
 Yes 53 (9) 50 (9) 3 (7) 0.7870
Concurrent chemotherapy     
 No 172 (28) 167 (29) 5 (11)  
 Yes 444 (72) 403 (71) 41 (89) 0.0059
RT technique     
 3D-CRT 448 (73) 409 (72) 39 (85)  
 IMRT 168 (27) 161 (28) 7 (15) 0.0593
Total radiation dose, Gy [median (range)] 69.96 (50–75) 69.96 (50–75) 69.96 (50–70) 0.5210
  1. Fisher’s exact test p values are shown for all covariates except for age and total radiation dose (t-test)
  2. ORNJ, osteoradionecrosis of the jaw; RT, radiation therapy; OPC, oropharyngeal cancer; OC, oral cancer; HPC, hypopharyngeal cancer; NPC, nasopharyngeal cancer; CUP, cervical lymph node metastases from an unknown primary site; 3D-CRT, 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy; IMRT, intensity-modulated radiation therapy