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Table 9 Clinical outcomes by the selected studies Kidney and target therapy

From: Oligometastasis and local ablation in the era of systemic targeted and immunotherapy

(year of publication)
Local ControlDistant progression free survivalOverall SurvivalToxicity
Staehler 2011 [57]98% at 15 monthsN.S.17.4 months (spinal lesions)
11.1 months (brain lesions)
2 pts.: asymptomatic
tumour haemorrhage after SRS (G2) 3 pts.: convulsions (G2)
Staehler 2012 [58]NS (1 case of PD at first evaluation at 3 months, other patients remission or stable disease)N.S.65% at 2 yearsNo G3 during combination
Cochran 2012 [50]74% at 1 year
40% at 3 years
(better for combined therapy:
1 year LC was 93.3 and 60% for patients treated with and
without targeted agents, respectively)
N.S.38% at 1 year,
9% at 3 years
(median survival 16.6 months for pts. treated with target therapy)
6 pts.: brain edema or necrosis (3 of them received target therapy) 2 brain hemorrhage
Verma 2013 [51]75.6% at 1 year in pts. treated with SRS
LC was statistically superior in lesions managed with surgery or SRS vs. the no local therapy.
No improvement of LC with TKIs added to local therapy (surgery, SRS)
N.S.5.4 months (all pts)4 pts.: radionecrosis
(2 of them in the TKI group and 2 in the non-TKI group)
Bastos 2015 [59]N.S.N.S.12.2 months5 pts. (8%): neurological
2 pts.: brain necrosis
3 pts.: brain hemorrhage
Miller 2016 [54]Subgroup SRS + TKI: 94% at 1 yearN.S.N.S.No G3 in TKI + SRS pts.,
the incidence of post-SRS vertebral fracture (overall 21%) and pain flare (overall 17%) were similar across cohorts (TKI, SRS alone, TKI + SRS)
Franzese 2019 [55]90.2% at 1 and 1.5 yearN.S.100% at 1 year
83% at 5 years
No G3 acute or late toxicity
  1. Notes and legend:
  2. LC Local control
  3. NS Not specified
  4. PD Progressive disease
  5. Pts Patients
  6. SRS Stereotactic radiosurgery (single fraction)
  7. TKIs Tyrosine kinase inhibitors