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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of enrolled patients

From: Whole brain radiation therapy does not improve the overall survival of EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients with leptomeningeal metastasis

Characteristic Total (n = 51)
n (%)
WBRT (n = 26)
n (%)
non-WBRT (n = 25)
n (%)
P-value
Age at the time of LM diagnosis (yr.)
 Median (range) 56 (32–81) 55 (32–81) 56 (37–73) 0.843
 < 60 34 (66.7) 17 (65.4) 17 (68)  
 ≥ 60 17 (33.3) 9 (34.6) 8 (32)  
Gender
 Male 17 (33.3) 8 (30.8) 9 (36) 0.692
 Female 34 (66.7) 18 (69.2) 16 (64)  
Smoking status
 Non-smoker 40 (78.4) 21 (80.8) 19 (76) 0.679
 Former/current-smoker 11 (21.6) 5 (19.2) 6 (24)  
KPS at the time of LM diagnosis
 ≥ 80 39 (76.5) 21 (80.8) 18 (72) 0.46
 < 80 12 (23.5) 5 (19.2) 7 (28)  
Pathological classification
 Adenocarcinoma 50 (98) 26 (100) 24 (96) 0.49
 Squamous cell carcinoma 1 (2) 0 (0) 1 (4)  
EGFR mutation status
 Exon 19 deletion 20 (39.2) 5 (19.2) 15 (60) 0.004
 Exon 21 L858R 31 (60.8) 21 (80.8) 10 (40)  
LM present at the initial diagnosis of NSCLC
 Yes 9 (17.6) 6 (23.1) 3 (12) 0.465
 No 42 (82.4) 20 (76.9) 22 (88)  
LM-related Symptoms and signs
 Asymptomatic 12 (23.5) 4 (15.4) 8 (32) 0.199
 Symptomatic 39 (76.5) 22 (84.6) 17 (68)  
The modality of LM diagnosis
 MRI+ 11 (21.6) 6 (23.1) 5 (20) 0.789
 MRI+/cytology+ 40 (78.4) 20 (76.9) 20 (80)  
Co-existing BMs
 Yes 44 (86.3) 24 (92.3) 20 (80) 0.248
 No 7 (13.7) 2 (7.7) 5 (20)  
Extracranial metastases at the time of LM diagnosis
 Yes 37 (72.5) 17 (65.4) 19 (76) 0.406
 No 14 (27.5) 9 (34.6) 6 (24)  
  1. LM Leptomeningeal metastasis, KPS Karnofsky performance status, NSCLC Non-small-cell lung cancer, EGFR Epidermal growth factor receptor, MRI Magnetic resonance imaging, BMs Brain metastases