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Table 2 All included studies

From: A systematic review of dose-volume predictors and constraints for late bowel toxicity following pelvic radiotherapy

Author Year Cancer site No of pts Pts with tox OAR studied Toxicity score used RT Type Primary RT Dose (Gy/#) Pelvic RT dose (Gy/#) Concurrent chemo use
Adkison [34] 2012 Prostate 53 20 small bowel CTCAE v3.0 IMRT 70/28 56/28 no
al-Abany [18] 2005 Prostate 65 9 anal sphincter region Own questionnaire 3D 70.2/39 NS no
Alsadius [19] 2012 Prostate or prostatic bed 403 51 anal sphincter region Own questionnaire 3D 70/35 NS no
Buettner [20] 2012 Prostate 388 57 anal canal Common grading scheme 3D 64/32 or 74/37 NS no
Chopra [11] 2014 Cervix (post-op) 71 9 small bowel, large bowel CTCAE v3.0 IG-MRT (46); 3D (25) 50/25 50/25 63/71 cisplatin
Deville [31] 2010 Prostate 30 2 intestinal cavity RTOG IMRT 79.2/44 45/25 no
Deville [7] 2012 Prostatic bed 36 5 intestinal cavity RTOG IMRT 70.2/39 45/25 no
Ebert [35] 2015 Prostate 754 Symptom specific Anal canal LENT-SOMA IMRT 66–78/33–38 NS no
Fokdal [14] 2005 Prostate or bladder 71 Symptom specific small bowel LENT-SOMA Conformal 60/30 (bladder) 69.6/35 (prostate) 48-60Gy bladder; NS for prostate) no
Fonteyne [17] 2007 Prostate 241 Symptom specific small bowel, sigmoid RTOG and “RILIT” IMRT 74/37–80/40 NS no
Green [36] 2015 Prostate or prostatic bed 73 10 Intestinal cavity CTCAE v4.0 IMRT/VMAT 61–79.2 45 no
Guerrero- Urbano [8] 2010 Prostate & Pelvic nodes 79 21 bowel loops RTOG diarrhoea & LENT SOMA diarrhoea IMRT 70/35 50/35 or 55/35 no
Huang [15] 2011 Pancreas 46 8 duodenum CTCAE v4.0 3D or IMRT 42/15 42/15; 36/15; 38/19 Gemcitabine; 18 pts. erlotinib in addition
Isohashi [10] 2013 Cervix (post-op) 97 16 peritoneal cavity, small and large bowel RTOG/EORTC 2D or 3D 50/25 50/25 All nedaplatin
Kelly [13] 2013 Pancreas 106 20 duodenum CTCAE v4.0 3D or IMRT 50.4/28 (78pts); 57.5–75.4 in 28–39# (28pts) 50.4/28 (78pts); 57.5–75.4 in 28–39# (28pts) Gemcitabine
5-FUor capecitabine +/− cetuximab or erlotinib
Author Year Cancer site No of pts Pts with tox OAR studied Toxicity score used RT Type RT Dose (Gy/#) Pelvic RT dose (Gy/#) Concurrent chemo use
Koper [25] 2004 Prostate 266 141 anal canal RTOG (simplified)
Symptom questionnaire
3D or 2D 66/33 NS no
Lind [12] 2016 Cervical or Endometrium 519 63 Anal sphincter, small bowel, sigmoid Own questionnaire (defecation into clothing without forewarning) 2D or 3D 40–46 (endometrium) or 55–70 (cervix) NS Not stated
Mavroidis [27] 2005 Prostate 65 Symptom specific anal sphincter Own questionnaire 3D 70.2/39 NS no
Mcdonald [9] 2015 Bladder 47 10 bowel loops RTOG 3D 64/32 64/32 21 received 5-FU/MMC
Mouttet-Audouard [6] 2015 Cervical 37 8 Small bowel [defined as peritoneal cavity], sigmoid CTCAE v4.0 IMRT (tomotherapy) 60/28 50/28 Cisplatin
Peeters [21] 2006 Prostate 641 146 Anal wall RTOG/EORTC plus 5 specified symptoms 3D (41 pts. had IMRT boost) 68/34 or 78/39 NS no
Peeters [28] 2006 Prostate 368 32 Anal wall Incontinence (no specific questionnaire) 3D (22 pts. had boost) 68/34 or 78/39 NS no
Poorvu [16] 2013 Cervix or Endometrium (+ PA nodes) 46 3 peritoneal cavity, small bowel, duodenal segments CTCAE v4.0 IMRT 45/25 (22pts); PAN boost 50–65 (33pts) 45/25 & PAN boost 50–65 (33 pts) 24 received cisplatin
Smeenk [26] 2012 Prostate 48 21 Anal sphincter muscles Presence of frequency, urgency and incontinence 3D (n = 43, IMRT (n = 5) 67.5/27 or 70/28 NS no
Smeenk [22] 2012 Prostate 36 23 Anal wall Late RILIT score: urgency, incontinence, frequency 3D 67.5/27 or 70/28 NS no
Taussky [37] 2003 Prostate 73 unclear anal canal UCLA, FACT-P and EORTC QLQ-PR25 3D 66.6–72/ 37–40 NS no
Thor [29] 2015 Prostate 212 Symptom specific Anal sphincter Own questionnaire with 19 descriptors for 4 symptoms 3D 70-78Gy NS no
Verma [30] 2014 Cervix & Endometrium 105 9 duodenum RTOG and endoscopic findings IMRT 45–50 (60-66Gy boost) 45–50 (60–66 boost) 58 pts. platinum agents
Vordermark [23] 2003 Prostate or prostatic bed 44 14% severe incontinence anal canal 10 question continence questionnaire 3D 58–72/29–36 NS No
Yeoh [24] 2016 Prostate 106 72% Anal wall LENT-SOMA total score 3D 66–74.4/ 33–4 NS no
  1. Abbreviations: Pts Patients, OAR Organs at risk, RT Radiotherapy, Gy Gray, # Fraction, NS Not stated, CTCAE Common terminology criteria for adverse events, RTOG Radiation therapy oncology group, LENT-SOMA Late Effects of Normal Tissue – Subjective Objective Management Analytical, RILIT Radiation induced late intestinal toxicity, EORTC European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer, IG-IMRT Image-guided intensity modulated radiotherapy, IMRT Intensity modulated radiotherapy, VMAT Volumetric modulated arc therapy, PA nodes Para-aortic nodes, pts Patients