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Table 1 Incidence of Invasion of Each Site in 469 Patients with Skull-base Invasions according to MRI

From: Grading of MRI–detected skull-base invasion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma with skull-base invasion after intensity-modulated radiotherapy

Site of skull-base invasion Bilateral Left Right Total (%)
Base of sphenoid 439 (93.6)    439 (93.6)
Foramen lacerum 116 (24.7) 117 (24.9) 95 (20.3) 328 (69.9)
Clivus 239 (51.0)    239 (51.0)
Petrous apex 58 (12.4) 93 (19.8) 85 (18.1) 236 (50.3)
Medial pterygoid plate 11 (2.3) 107 (22.8) 84 (17.9) 202 (43.1)
Foramen ovale 20 (4.3) 92 (19.6) 90 (19.2) 202 (43.1)
Pterygopalatin fossa 12 (2.6) 69 (14.7) 57 (12.2) 138 (29.4)
Foramen rotundum 14 (3.0) 47 (10.0) 52 (11.1) 113 (24.1)
Foramen magnum 93 (19.8)    93 (19.8)
Hypoglossal canal 14 (3.0) 34 (7.2) 41 (8.7) 89 (29.0)
Lateral pterygoid plate 2 (0.4) 36 (7.7) 37 (7.9) 75 (16.0)
Jugular foramen 2 (0.4) 22 (4.7) 29 (6.2) 53 (11.3)