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Table 3 Simulation times in minutes for PENELOPE and pDPM to obtain a dose distribution with 1% standard statistical uncertainty for some single field cases and dynamic treatments

From: DPM as a radiation transport engine for PRIMO

   Simulation time [min] Speedup
    pDPM   
Test case Voxel size [cm3] penelope Original voxel Coarse voxel Original voxel Coarse voxel
Described in “Photon transport in a multi-layer phantom” section 0.5×0.5×0.25 37 9.5 - 3.9× -
Described in “Photon transport in a MLC” section 0.2×0.2×0.5 324 129 - 2.5× -
Head&Neck VMAT, 194 CP 0.19×0.15×0.19 1061 140 42 7.6× 25.3×
Lung VMAT, 194 CP 0.19×0.14×0.19 331 28 14 11.8× 23.6×
Brain VMAT, 354 CP 0.11×0.2×0.11 687 117 34 5.8× 20.2×
Prostate IMRT, 621 CP 0.18×0.25×0.18 472 64 45 7.3× 10.5×
  1. Clinical cases were simulated with the same voxel size of the original CT scan (original voxel), for both penelope and pDPM. Simulation times with pDPM for the clinical cases in which the coarse voxel size of (0.25 cm)3 was employed are reported in the corresponding column. The speedups of pDPM with respect to penelope for the simulation with the original voxel size are given in the Original voxel column. The speedup obtained with the coarse option of pDPM is also reported. CP stands for control point