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Table 1 Patient characteristics

From: Preoperative radiotherapy improves survival in rectal signet-ring cell carcinoma-a population-based study

Characteristic n Radiotherapy p
   No (%) Preoperative (%) Postoperative (%)  
Sex
 Male 198 35 (66.0) 89 (64.5) 74 (73.3) 0.341
 Female 94 18 (34.0) 49 (35.5) 27 (26.7)
Age
 Mean ± SD (years) 57 ± 16.8 67 ± 17.2 54 ± 16.3 55 ± 15.2 <0.001
Race      
 White 224 40 (75.5) 99 (71.7) 85 (84.2) 0.095
 Black 23 5 (9.4) 10 (7.2) 8 (7.9)  
 Other and unknown 45 8 (15.1) 29 (21.0) 8 (7.9)  
Tumor grade
 G1–2 20 3 (5.7) 7 (5.1) 10 (9.9) 0.118
 G3–4 237 47 (88.7) 108 (78.3) 82 (81.2)  
 Unknown 35 3 (5.7) 23 (16.7) 9 (8.9)  
Tumor size (mm)
 Mean ± SD 53.5 ± 25.1 55.4 ± 26.6 53.3 ± 25.6 52.8 ± 23.9 0.835
Number of RLNs (n)      
 Mean ± SD 14.8 ± 11.6 13.3 ± 10.0 13.9 ± 10.1 16.9 ± 13.9 0.080
Number of PLNs (n)      
 Mean ± SD 6.7 ± 7.2 8.3 ± 9.2 5.2 ± 5.8 7.9 ± 7.2 0.003
Tumor stage
 II 51 11 (20.8) 29 (21.0) 11 (10.9) 0.099
 III 241 42 (79.2) 109 (79.0) 90 (89.1)
  1. G1 well differentiated, G2 moderately differentiated, G3 poorly differentiated, G4 undifferentiated, PLNs positive lymph nodes, RLNs removes lymph nodes, SD standard deviation