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Table 4 Prognostic tools relating to combinations of brachytherapy and external beam radiation therapy

From: An appraisal of analytical tools used in predicting clinical outcomes following radiation therapy treatment of men with prostate cancer: a systematic review

Author Model type Variables Variable readily available? Validation (I/E) Accuracy Metric Sample size (number of events) Outcome Tx
Rodrigues [14] Survival model (Cox) T stage, PSA and Gleason Yes Internal (cross validation) 0.64 c-index 7839 (NR) OS Brachytherapy and or EBRT
Rodrigues [14] Survival model (Cox) T stage, PSA and Gleason Yes Internal (cross validation) 0.67 c-index 7839 (NR) BFFF Brachytherapy and or EBRT
Delouya [19] Survival model (Cox) CAPRA score (Age, PSA, Gleason score, T-stage, PPB) Yes External 0.69, 95%CI 55.0 to 83.8; 0.66, 95%CI 54.4 to 78.3; 0.68, 95%CI 58.5 to 77.2; 0.62 95%CI 53.2 to 70.7 c-index at 2, 3, 4, and 5 years 744 (47) BFFF Brachytherapy or EBRT
Delouya [19] Survival model (Cox) D’Amico classification (T-stage, PSA and Gleason) Yes External 59.1% - 61.6%; and 54.5% - 61.6% 3-5 year sensitivity and specificity 744 (47) BFFF Brachytherapy or EBRT
Wattson [61] Survival Model (Fine and Gray) Number of high-risk factors (prostate-specific antigen >20 ng/mL, biopsy Gleason score 8–10, or clinical stage T2c), adjusted for age, comorbidity, and the type of supplemental treatment No, comorbidity Not stated Not stated NA 2234 (57) PCSM EBRT and or Brachytherapy
Kubicek [48] Survival model Mid therapy PSA (<25% vs > =25%) No, mid therapy PSA cohort specific Not stated Not stated NA 717 (NR) Disease free survival Brachytherapy and EBRT
Kubicek [48] Survival model Mid therapy PSA (<25% vs > =25%) No, mid therapy PSA cohort specific Not stated Not stated NA 717 (NR) OS Brachytherapy and EBRT
Krishnan [20] Survival model (Cox) CAPRA scores (based on PSA, Biopsy Gleason, Age at diagnosis, clinical tumour stage and % biopsy cores positive for cancer) Yes External Not stated NA 345 (45) BCF EBRT and/or LDR
McKenna [49] Survival model (Cox) Patient age, hormonal treatment, baseline PSA, and degree of extracapsular extension, pre-treatment MRI Yes, where MRI is routine Not stated Not stated NA 80 (4) Metastatic recurrence and BCF EBRT or EBRT with Brachytherapy
  1. Abbreviations: OS overall survival, BCF bio chemical failure, BFFF bio chemical freedom from failure, PCSM prostate cancer specific mortality, NA not applicable, NR not reported, MRI magnetic resonance imaging