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Table 5 Patterns of planning constraints violations in the closed loop validation

From: Assessment of a model based optimization engine for volumetric modulated arc therapy for patients with advanced hepatocellular cancer

Patient Parameter Clinical plan Closed-loop validation  
1 Normal Liver V30Gy < 30% 31.7% 31.9% -
2 Normal Liver V30Gy < 30% 30.6% 29.4% -
3 Normal Liver V30Gy < 30% 34.8% 29.8% -
4 Spinal cord D1cm3 < 45Gy 45.3% 40.3% -
Left Kidney V15Gy < 35% 39.2% 14.6% -
Right kidney V15Gy < 35% 53.8% 39.9% -
Normal Liver V30Gy < 30% 51.4% 36.9% -
5 Right kidney V15Gy < 35% 77.4% 38.3% -
Normal Liver V30Gy < 30% 31.8% 23.3% -
6 Right kidney V15Gy < 35% 41.6% 19.4% -
7 Right kidney V15Gy < 35% 43.6% 26.7% -
Patient Parameter Clinical plan Open-loop validation I Open-loop validation II
1 Normal Liver V30Gy < 30% 30.5% 27.4% 30.6%
2 Right kidney V15Gy < 35% 46.9% 39.7% 23.6%
3 Right kidney V15Gy < 35% 38.5% 34.8% 34.4%
4 Normal Liver V30Gy < 30% 29.3% 31.0% 29.9%
5 Right kidney V15Gy < 35% 31.8% 36.9% 20.5%
6 Right kidney V15Gy < 35% 38.6% 36.6% 21.5%
PTV D98% > 90% 94.8% 89.3% 89.8%
7 Normal Liver V30Gy < 30% 32.1% 32.5% 33.1%
8 Normal Liver V30Gy < 30% 36.3% 30.0% 39.5%
9 Right kidney V15Gy < 35% 49.9% 26.9% 17.0%
10 Right kidney V15Gy < 35% 38.9% 26.5% 25.0%
11 Right kidney V15Gy < 35% 46.3% 25.6% 22.7%
  1. In bold the parameters that were violated. The patients in the two groups are different.