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Table 1 Overview of important in vivo and in vitro studies (with either a large number of CIEDs or interesting findings, excluding reviews)

From: Management of radiation oncology patients with a pacemaker or ICD: A new comprehensive practical guideline in The Netherlands

Year First author Study type Number of PM included Number of ICD included Intervention: Max Dose in study(Gy) Number of defects type of defect
2010 Ferrara Prospective in vivo 37 8 < 2,5 No defects No defects
2010 Wadasadawala Review+ 8 pacemakers 8 0 60 No defects No defects
2009 Zweng case report 1 0 0.11 1[1] @ 0.11 Gy runaway PM
2009 Gelblum Retrospective in vivo 0 33 <3 1[33] @3 Gy Reset to factory settings
2008 Lau case report 0 1 <0,15 1[1] @ 0,15 Gy electrical reset
2008 Kapa in vitro research + in vivo retrospective 7 (in vivo) 20 (in vitro) 5 (in vivo) < 4 (in vitro) unreported for in vivo No defects No defects, 4 devices relocated before RT
2008 Munshi[52] case report 1   4.3 No defects No defects
2007 Nemec case report 0 1 < 6 1[1] @ <1 Gy* Runaway ICD
2005 Hurkmans[24] in vitro research 19 0 < 120 14[19] @ 120 Gy 1[19] @ 20 Gy Output, sense and communication
2005 2006 Hurkmans Uiterwaal[24] in vitro research 0 11 < 120 11[11]@120 Gy (irreversible) 4[11]@ 0,5 Gy (minor defects) To low shock energy, sensing and Battery charge time, erroneous VF or VT detection.
2004 John case report 0 1 50 1[1] @ not reported dose shock impedance (coil failure)
2002 Mouton in vitro research 96 0 200 4(96) @ 0,2 Gy 21(96)@2 Gy >0.2 Gy/min 8 defect modes described
2001 Niehaus Review+ in vivo research 0 3 < 5 no defects No defects
2000 Tsekos case report 1 0 < 50 1[1] @ not reported dose Decrease of battery load
1994 Souliman in vitro research 18 0 70 11[18] @ 7,0 Gy 2[18] @ 1,7 Gy 5[18] @ 2,5 Gy 1) temporary change to interference or safety mode pacing lasting for the duration of the irradiation only[2] change to interference mode pacing—from which recovery may occur after reprogramming the pacemaker[3] severe damage
1994 Wilm[53] in vitro research 20 0 300 2[20] @ 10 Gy (complete defects) Complete defect, decrease of pace amplitude, loss of telemetry
1991 Rodriguez in vitro research 23 4 < 50 1[23] @ 14 Gy 11[23] sensitivity 9[23] telemetry sensitivity, telemetry and total defect
  1. * estimated from the case report.