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Table 2 BNCT clinical trials in the United States and Europe using epithermal neutron beams for patients with brain tumors

From: Current status of boron neutron capture therapy of high grade gliomas and recurrent head and neck cancer

Medical institution Neutron source Treatment dates Tumor type & No. of patientsa Boron compound & treatmentb Clinical outcomec Ref.
Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, USA Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor, BNL, Upton, NY, USA 1994-1999 GBM 53 BPA 250–330 mg/kg in 2 h MeST: 12.8 mos. [53, 79, 80, 82]
      2 y OS: 9.4%  
Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA MIT Research Reactor, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA 1996-1999 20 GBM BPA 250–350 mg/kg in 1.5 h MeST: 11.1 mos (n = 18) [53, 59, 81]
    2 IC MM   2 y OS: 12%  
   2002-2003 6 GBM BPA 14 g/m2 in 1.5 h NA [61]
Universitätsklinikum Essen, Essen Germany High Flux Reactor, JRC Petten, The Netherlands 1997-2002 26 GBM BSH 100 mg/kg in 1.7 h MeST: 10.4-13.2 mos. [83, 84]
   2004-2006 4 IC MM (>20 IC mets ea.) BPA 14 g/m2 in 1.5 h OS: < 3 mos. [85]
Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland FiR-1, VTT Technical Research Centre, Espoo, Finland 1999-2001 30 GBM BPA 290–500 mg/kg in 2 h MeST: 11.0-21.9 mos. [86, 87]
   2001-2008 20 rGBM BPA 290–450 mg/kg in 2 h MeST: 7 mos. post BNCT [88]
    2 rAA   1 y OS: 36%  
      2 y OS: 0%  
Faculty Hospital of Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic LVR-15 Reactor, Nuclear Research Institute Rez, Czech Republic 2000-2002 5 GBM BSH 100 mg/kg in 1 h NA [89]
Nyköping Hospital, Nyköping, Sweden R2-0 Reactor, Studsvik Medical, Nyköping, Sweden 2001-2003 29 GBM BPA 900 mg/kg in 6 h MeST: 17.7 mos. [9093]
      2 y OS: 14%  
   2003-2004 1 rMMng BPA 900 mg/kg in 6 h OS: 32, 26+ mos. post BNCT [94]
    1 rMC    
   2001-2005 12 rGBM BPA 900 mg/kg in 6 h MeST: 8.7 mos. post BNCT [95]
  1. aIncluding other disease sites and patients treated off-protocol, the total number of patients treated at some reactors is much greater than reported here, for FiR-1, ~260, for KURR, >107, and for JRR-4, >200 patients. bTreatment is indicated only in cases when it is not solely external beam BNCT. cA range of survival is given in some cases to summarize survival reported for different cohorts.
  2. Abbreviations: r recurrent, GBM glioblastoma multiforme, IC MM intracranial metastatic melanoma, AA anaplastic astrocytoma, MMng malignant meningioma, MC mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, AOA anaplastic oligoastrocytoma, MRM meningioma related malignancy, IO-BNCT intraoperative BNCT, XRT external beam radiation therapy (photons), MeST median survival time, 2 y OS 2 year overall survival, RI radiographic improvement, NA not available.