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Table 1 Studies analysing seminal vesicle motion and margins

From: Seminal vesicle interfraction displacement and margins in image guided radiotherapy for prostate cancer

Authors Movements LR/AP/SI* (mm) Margins Localisation† Method for margins Deformation Patients Scans per patient
Current work Centre of volume: Systematic 1.9/2.9/3.6. Random 1.4/2.7/2.1 Geometric method approx 15 mm (whole SV and inf 2.5 cm). Van Herk Formula approx 10 mm. Prostate centroid Geometrical expansion of reference SV contours, and Van Herk Formula Yes 24 32
Frank et al.[7] Centre of volume: Systematic 1.9/7.3/4.5. Random 0.4/1.2/0.6 ≥ 10 mm 10 mm covers SV AP variation in 86% of treatments Pubic symphysis Geometrical No 15 24
AHerne et al.[8] N/A 5 mm cover both SVs in 56.2% of fractions,10 mm cover 95.5%, 15 mm cover all Prostate fiiducial markers Geometrical - margin to cover fiducial marker in SV No 9 8-11
van der Wielen et al.[14] Deformation + movement approx 3.0 (1.7 in LR) Approx 9–10 mm (illustrative). Prostate fiducial markers Van Herk Formula (illustrative) Yes 21 4
Mutanga et al.[15] Used data above 8 mm margin insufficient (IMRT) Prostate fiducial markers Dose (simulation including deformation with deformable registration) Yes 21 4
Liang et al.[16] Maximize overlap of SV volume. Systematic 1.1/2.9/2.2. Random 1.2/2.4/1.9 Minimum margins 4.5 mm (IMRT) Prostate (maximize overlap of 3D volume) Dose (deformable registration) Yes 24 16
O’Daniel et al.[17] N/A Study compared alignment technique and found 5 mm margins give a minimum of 92% of dose to SV using IMRT Prostate centroid Minimum dose in any fraction Yes 10 24
Meijer et al.[18] N/A 8 mm (inferior 2 cm of SV) (IMRT) Prostate fiducial markers Dose (deformable registration) Yes 30 8
Smitsmans et al.[19] Image based registration of central (sup/inf) part of SV Systematic 1.6/2.8/-- Random 2.0/3.1/-- 4.6 mm LR 7.6 mm AP Prostate fiducial markers Van Herk Formula No 13 23
  1. *AP = anterior/posterior, LR = left/right, SI = superior/inferior† Using translations alone.