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Table 2 Local failure pattern analysis after reirradiation with CIRT vs. VMAT in recurrent head and neck cancer

From: Ways to unravel the clinical potential of carbon ions for head and neck cancer reirradiation: dosimetric comparison and local failure pattern analysis as part of the prospective randomized CARE trial

Pat ReRT Failure type rGTV (ccm) rGTV Dmean rGTV D95% rGTVc Dmean N failure M failure Possible cause of local failure Salvage treatment
01 CIRT E 15.9 30.4 5.7 19.4 No No Aberrant areas of recurrence Best supportive care
02 CIRT E 4.4 6.2 1.3 2.8 No No Aberrant areas of recurrence Immunotherapy
03 CIRT A 1.6 63.8 62.8 63.6 No No Biological/dosimetric failure Salvage surgery
04 VMAT B and E 4.6 59.1/35.3 53.3/10.7 60.4/36.2 No No Overgrown recurrence + aberrant areas of recurrence Immunotherapy
08 CIRT E 5.4 42.1 6.9 57.9 Yes Yes Improper risk assessment Salvage surgery
09 VMAT E 6.6 16.5 6.2 13.4 No No Aberrant areas of recurrence Chemotherapy
10 VMAT B 2.2 37.4 15.0 38.9 Yes No Dosimetric failure Chemotherapy
14 CIRT A and B 14.8 63.8/59.5 62.8/45.9 63.5/63.0 No No Biological/dosimetric failure + overgrown recurrence Immunotherapy
15 CIRT B and E 17.5 59.8/0 36.3/0 63.1/0 No No Overgrown recurrence + aberrant areas of recurrence Immunotherapy
  1. CIRT Carbon ion radiotherapy, VMAT volumetric modulated arc therapy, RT Radiotherapy, rGTV Recurrence gross tumor volume, Dmean Mean dose; D95% Dose reached in 95% of the rGTV, rGTVc rGTV centroid, N nodal, M metastatic