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Table 2 Survival predictors in the development cohort by univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression

From: Predicting 2-year survival in stage I-III non-small cell lung cancer: the development and validation of a scoring system from an Australian cohort

Variable 2-year status Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
Alive (n = 56) Dead (n = 61) OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value
Sex     0.96 NI
 Male 38 41 1.00 (Reference)    
 Female 18 20 1.01 (0.59–1.73)    
Age (years)    1.01 (0.99–1.04) 0.41 NI
 Median (SD) 71.4 (10.6) 75.0 (10.2)     
ECOG performance status     0.03   0.1
 0 28 27 1.00 (Reference)   1.00 (Reference)  
 1 21 14 0.81 (0.43–1.56) 0.54 0.65 (0.36–1.16) 0.14
 ≥ 2 7 20 1.87 (1.04–3.36) 0.036 1.27 (0.70–2.31) 0.43
SCS     0.68 NI
 0–9 36 41 1.00 (Reference)    
 10–20 20 20 1.12 (0.65–1.93)    
Smoking status     0.53 NI
 Never 3 4 1.00 (Reference)    
 Past 35 36 0.77 (0.27–2.18) 0.63   
 Current 18 20 1.05 (0.36–3.08) 0.93   
Pack years smoked    1.00 (0.99–1.01) 0.9 NI
 Median (SD) 40.0 (29.4) 43.6 (28.3)     
Weight loss (%)     0.22 NI
 None 29 28 1.00 (Reference)    
 ≤ 10 15 14 1.00 (0.53–1.92) 0.98   
 > 10 9 16 1.68 (0.90–3.11) 0.1   
FEV1 (%)    0.99 (0.98–1.01) 0.42 NI
 Median (SD) 66.0 (21.3) 67.3 (18.7)     
DLCO (%)    0.99 (0.97–1.00) 0.078 0.99 (0.97–1.00) 0.046
 Median (SD) 64.0 (23.0) 59.7 (15.9)     
Overall stage     0.09   0.37
 I 20 14 1.00 (Reference)   1.00 (Reference)  
 II 7 15 2.20 (1.06–4.59) 0.034 0.86 (0.38–1.96) 0.72
 III 29 32 1.33 (0.71–2.52) 0.37 1.62 (0.99–2.66) 0.36
T stage     0.41 NI
 T1 18 13 1.00 (Reference)    
 T2 20 18 1.08 (0.53–2.21) 0.84   
 T3 12 21 1.63 (0.81–3.29) 0.17   
 T4 6 8 1.57 (0.65–3.79) 0.32   
N stage     0.44 NI
 N0 31 25 1.00 (Reference)    
 N1 5 9 1.87 (0.87–4.03) 0.11   
 N2 14 17 1.29 (0.69–2.40) 0.42   
 N3 6 10 1.25 (0.60–2.64) 0.55   
Histological diagnosis     0.025   0.078
 Squamous cell carcinoma 25 39 1.00 (Reference)   1.00 (Reference)  
 Adenocarcinoma 21 16 0.52 (0.29–0.94) 0.029 0.57 (0.34–0.95) 0.031
 Other 10 6 0.36 (0.13–1.04) 0.058 0.62 (0.28–1.38) 0.24
Tumour grade     0.82 NI
 < 3 17 19 1.00 (Reference)    
 3 17 22 1.07 (0.58–1.99)    
Tumour laterality     0.72 NI
 Left 26 22 1.00 (Reference)    
 Right 30 37 1.10 (0.65–1.87)    
Tumour lobe     0.056   0.059
 Upper 38 33 1.00 (Reference)   1.00 (Reference)  
 Middle/lower 18 26 1.66 (0.98–2.80)   1.61 (0.98–2.62)  
GTV (cc)    1.00 (1.00–1.00) 0.88 NI
 Median (SD) 21.6 (173.2) 78.7 (92.3)     
Radiotherapy technique     0.005   0.92
 Conformal 4 11 1.00 (Reference)   1.00 (Reference)  
 IMRT 38 42 0.42 (0.21–0.83) 0.012 0.95 (0.37–2.39) 0.9
 VMAT 14 8 0.25 (0.10–0.62) 0.003 0.83 (0.29–2.39) 0.73
Radiotherapy treatment duration (days)    0.99 (0.97–1.00) 0.15 0.99 (0.96–1.00) 0.52
 Median (SD) 26.7 (14.2) 21.0 (15.2)     
EQD2 (Gy)    0.97 (0.96–0.99) < 0.001 0.98 (0.96–0.99) < 0.001
 Median (SD) 63 (16.6) 60 (18.6)     
Chemotherapy use     0.28 NI
 Chemotherapy 22 23 1.00 (Reference)    
 No chemotherapy 34 38 1.34 (0.79–2.27)    
  1. OR = odds ratio; CI = confidence interval; SD = standard deviation; ECOG = Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group; SCS = Simplified Comorbidity Score; FEV1 = forced expiratory volume in 1 s; DLCO = diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide; GTV = gross tumour volume; IMRT = intensity-modulated radiotherapy; VMAT = volumetric modulated arc therapy; EQD2 = equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions
  2. NI = Not included in multivariate analysis as p-value > 0.20 by univariate analysis