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Table 1 Demographic and disease characteristics of the patients (N = 172)

From: Intraoperative radiotherapy as an immediate adjuvant treatment of rectal cancer due to limited access to external-beam radiotherapy

CharacteristicIORT GroupIORT+EBRT GroupP
no. (%)N = 92 (53.5)N = 80 (46.5)
Follow-up duration - median (range) - months25 (0.9–62.5)22 (0–57.7)0.52
Age  0.67
 Median (range) - yr65.5 (38.0–83.0)65 (33.0–85.0) 
  < 65 yr - no (%)40 (43.5)38 (47.5) 
Male sex - no. (%)49 (53.3)39 (48.8)0.55
Primary Cancer Site - no. (%)  < 0.0001
 Upper Third Rectum (incl. rectosigmoid)17 (18.5)5 (6.3) 
 Middle Third Rectum53 (57.6)19 (23.8) 
 Lower Third Rectum22 (23.9)56 (70.0) 
neoadjuvant EBRT Dose [Gy] - no. (%)   
 50,4079 (98.7) 
  < 50,401 (1.3) 
Pathologic Tumor Stage - no. (%)   
 T  0.047
 T22 (2.2)2 (2.5) 
 T382 (89.1)59 (73.8) 
 T4a7 (7.6)14 (17.5) 
 T4b1 (1.1)5 (6.3) 
 N  0.0001
 N078 (84.8)41 (51.3) 
 N111 (12.0)25 (31.3) 
 N23 (3.3)14 (17.5) 
Stage Group - no. (%)  0.0001
 II77 (83.7)41 (51.3) 
 IIA72 (87.3)32 (40.0) 
 IIB5 (5.4)8 (10.0) 
 IIC01 (1.3) 
 III15 (16.3)39 (48.8) 
 IIIA8 (8.7)13 (16.25) 
 IIIB7 (7.6)24 (30.6) 
 IIIC02 (2.5) 
Histology - no. (%)  0.5
 Adenocarcinoma91 (98.9)78 (97.5) 
 Squamous cell carcinoma1 (1.1)1 (1.2) 
 Mucinous carcinoma with ring cell components01 (1.2) 
Differentiation - no. (%)  0.25
 Well differentiated (G1)4 (4.3)0 
 Modarately differentiated (G2)79 (85.9)72 (90.0) 
 Poorly differentiated (G3)8 (8.7)6 (7.5) 
 Grade cannot be assessed (Gx)1 (1.1)6 (7.5) 
Tumor size  0.02
 median (range) - cm4.0 (1.5–9)5.0 (2.0–8.0) 
  < 2.5 cm - no. (%)5 (5.4)2 (2.6) 
 2.5–4.0 cm - no. (%)43 (46.7)29 (36.3) 
  > 4.0 cm - no. (%)44 (47.8)49 (61.3) 
Resection - no. (%)  0.0001
 High anterior resection15 (16.3)4 (5.0) 
 Low anterior resection63 (68.5)15 (18.8) 
 Ultra Low anterior resection3 (3.3)1 (1.3) 
 Abdomnial perineal excision8 (7.9)63 (75.0) 
 Hartmann’s Procedure3 (3.3)1 (1.3) 
Resection status - no. (%)  0.2
 R089 (96.7)73 (91.3) 
 R13 (3.3)5 (6.3) 
 R202 (2.5) 
Stoma - no. (%)  0.0001
 End Colostomy20 (21.7)60 (75.0) 
 Loop Colostomy66 (71.7)19 (23.8) 
 Loop Ileostomy5 (5.4)1 (1.3) 
 none1 (1.1)0 
IORT - median (range)
 Dose on applicator surface (Gy)15 (15.0–17.0)15 (8.4–17)0.1
 Treatment Time (min)34 (25.0–38.0)34 (15.0–38.0)0.64
 Applicator Size (cm)5 (4.5–5.0)5 (4.5–5.0)0.68
Days to discharge after surgery - median (range)16 (5.0–25.0)16 (9.0–42.0)0.4
Chemotherapy - no. (%)  0.0001
 any10 (10.9)37 (46.3) 
 both017 (21.3) 
 neoadjuvant020 (25.0) 
 adjuvant10 (10.9)34 (42.5)