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Table 1 Patients’ characteristics (a), frequency of lymph node (LN) metastasis at presentation according to each characteristic (b), and the 5-year regional recurrence-free rate in cN0 cases by characteristic (c)

From: Invasion of the pterygoid plates: an indicator for regional lymph node failure in maxillary sinus cancer

(a) Characteristic (b) LN metastasis at presentasion (%) (c) 5-year regional recurrence-free rate in cN0 cases (%)
No. (%)   p value No   p value
Age (years), median (range) 70 (38–91)      
 ≥ 70 years 30 (55) 23 0.18 23 76 0.7
 < 70 years 25 (45) 40   15 76  
Gender       
 Male 46 (84) 30 1 32 81 0.44
 Female 9 (16) 33   6 53  
ECOG PS       
 0 42 (76) 31 0.82 29 78 0.26
 1 11 (20) 27   8 57  
 ≥ 2 2 (4) 50   1  
T factor       
 3 5 (9) 0 0.12 5 75 0.96
 4a 26 (47) 42   15 63  
 4b 24 (44) 25   18 82  
N factor       
 0 38(69)      
 1 5 (9)      
 2b 11 (20)      
 2c 1 (2)      
Imaging studies at presentation      
 CT 55 (100)      
 MRI 27 (49)      
 PET‐CT 13 (24)      
Direction of tumor invasion medial site       
 Yes 53 (96) 30 0.52 37 73 0.58
 No 2 (4) 50   1 100  
Lateral site       
 Yes 45 (82) 33 0.33 30 67 0.16
 No 10 (18) 20   8 100  
Cranial site       
 Yes 52 (95) 29 0.22 37 73 0.64
 No 3 (5) 66   1 100  
Caudal site       
 Yes 31 (56) 32 1 21 35 0.02
 No 14 (44) 29   17 92  
Anterior site       
 Yes 48 (87) 31 1 33 80 0.83
 No 7 (13) 29   5 71  
Posterior site (pterygoid plates)      
 Yes 34 (62) 41 0.02 20 57  < 0.01
 No 21 (38) 14   18 90  
Nasopharynx       
 Yes 5 (9) 60 0.17 2 100 0.53
 No 50 (91) 27   36 72  
Posterior wall+       
 Yes 50 (91) 34 0.14 33 69 0.3
 No 5 (9) 0   5 100