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Table 1 Results: the descriptive statistics refer to the mean bladder wall thickness normalized to the baseline value and is expressed in arbitrary units

From: A non-invasive ultrasound imaging method to measure acute radiation-induced bladder wall thickening in rats

Group Parameters Day 4 Day 28
Control (n = 6 rats) Mean ± SD 0.94 ± 0.13 0.94 ± 0.10
Median (Min–Max) 0.9 (0.78–1.11) 0.93 (0.81–1.10)
25–30 Gy (n = 9 rats) Mean ± SD 1.32 ± 0.41 1.30 ± 0.21
  Median (Min–Max) 1.22 (0.82–2.27) 1.29 (1.00–1.73)
  Events above effect size 2/9 (22%) 4/9 (44%)
  p value (vs. control group)  < 0.0001
35–40 Gy (n = 9 rats) Mean ± SD 1.47 ± 0.29 1.90 ± 0.83
  Median (Min–Max) 1.45 (1.15–1.94) 1.69 (1.02–3.60)
  Events above effect size 5/9 (56%) 8/9 (89%)
  p value (vs. control group)  < 0.0001
  p value (vs. 25–30 Gy group) 0.022
  1. p values are reported as result of the Mann–Whitney–Wilcoxon test between groups