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Table 1 Patient characteristics before and after matching

From: Proton versus photon radiotherapy for primary hepatocellular carcinoma: a propensity-matched analysis

Covariates Before matching After matching
Photon
n = 349
Proton
n = 64
p SMD Photon
n = 55
Proton
n = 55
p SMD
Age, years (mean (SD)) 60.38 (11.91) 65.53 (13.29) 0.002 0.408 62.27 (11.79) 63.90 (13.14) 0.495 0.131
Sex (%)    0.024 0.287    0.303 0.198
 Male 292 (83.7) 46 (71.9)    48 (87.3) 44 (80.0)   
 Female 57 (16.3) 18 (28.1)    7 (12.7) 11 (20.0)   
Histology (%)    0.867 0.207    1.000 0.067
 Well differentiated 7 (2) 0 (0)    0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)   
 Moderately differentiated 58 (16.6) 10 (15.6)    7 (12.7) 7 (12.7)   
 Poorly differentiated 24 (6.9) 5 (7.8)    4 (7.3) 5 (9.1)   
 Not available 260 (74.5) 49 (76.6)    44 (80.0) 43 (78.2)   
AJCC stage (%)    < 0.001 0.782    0.913 0.081
 I/II 32 (9.2) 26 (40.6)    18 (32.7) 17 (30.9)   
 III 279 (79.9) 33 (51.6)    31 (56.4) 33 (60.0)   
 IVA 38 (10.9) 5 (7.8)    6 (10.9) 5 (9.1)   
Liver Fibrosis Score (%)    < 0.001 0.712    0.829 0.041
 Ishak F1–4 51 (14.6) 16 (25.0)    14 (25.5) 15 (27.3)   
 Ishak F5–6 231 (66.2) 48 (75.0)    41 (74.5) 40 (72.7)   
 Not available 67 (19.2) 0 (0)    0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)   
Hepatitis B (%)    0.001 0.663    0.920 0.077
 Negative 107 (30.7) 25 (39.1)    18 (32.7) 20 (36.4)   
 Positive 166 (47.6) 38 (59.4)    36 (65.5) 34 (61.8)   
 Missing 76 (21.8) 1 (1.6)    1 (1.8) 1 (1.8)   
Hepatitis C (%)    0.001 0.633    0.914 0.082
 Negative 197 (56.4) 43 (67.2)    40 (72.7) 38 (69.1)   
 Positive 81 (23.2) 20 (31.2)    14 (25.5) 16 (29.1)   
 Missing 71 (20.3) 1 (1.6)    1 (1.8) 1 (1.8)   
Alpha-Fetoprotein (%)    < 0.001 0.719    0.701 0.073
 < =200 ng/mL 127 (36.4) 35 (54.7)    30 (54.5) 32 (58.2)   
 > 200 ng/mL 155 (44.4) 29 (45.3)    25 (45.5) 23 (41.8)   
 Missing 67 (19.2) 0 (0)    0 (0) 0 (0)   
ALBI Grade (%)    < 0.001 0.610    0.604 0.192
 1 80 (22.9) 24 (37.5)    21 (38.2) 20 (36.4)   
 2 231 (66.2) 24 (37.5)    26 (47.3) 23 (41.8)   
 Missing 38 (10.9) 16 (25.0)    8 (14.5) 12 (21.8)   
Child-Pugh class (%)    < 0.001 0.876    0.757 0.193
 A 204 (58.5) 59 (92.2)    51 (92.7) 51 (92.7)   
 B 68 (19.5) 4 (6.2)    2 (3.6) 4 (7.3)   
 C 4 (1.1) 0 (0.0)    0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)   
 Missing 73 (20.9) 1 (1.6)    2 (3.6) 1 (1.8)   
Tumor number (%)    0.157 0.229    0.741 0.198
 Single 128 (36.7) 26 (40.6)    21 (38.2) 21 (38.2)   
 Multiple 213 (61.0) 34 (53.1)    33 (60.0) 31 (56.4)   
 Missing 8 (2.3) 4 (6.2)    1 (1.8) 3 (5.5)   
Size of the largest tumor (%)    0.270 0.305    0.809 0.125
 < =5 cm 97 (27.8) 24 (37.5)    19 (34.5) 17 (30.9)   
 > 5 and < =10 cm 132 (37.8) 23 (35.9)    22 (40.0) 21 (38.2)   
 > 10 cm 111 (31.8) 17 (26.6)    14 (25.5) 17 (30.9)   
 Missing 9 (2.6) 0 (0.0)    0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)   
PVTT (%)    < 0.001 0.922    0.669 0.199
 Absent 66 (18.9) 36 (56.2)    28 (50.9) 28 (50.9)   
 Present 275 (78.8) 24 (37.5)    26 (47.3) 24 (43.6)   
 Missing 8 (2.3) 4 (6.2)    1 (1.8) 3 (5.5)   
  1. AJCC American Joint Committee on Cancer, ALBI Albumin-bilirubin, PVTT Portal vein tumor thrombosis, SMD Standardized mean difference