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Table 1 Overview of synthetic CT generation methods applied to patient data and evaluated for proton therapy dose calculations

From: MR-guided proton therapy: a review and a preview

Body site Method MRI pulse sequence Conversion time MAE in HU Dose accuracy Study
Brain Voxel-based classification 2D TSE, 3D UTE 300 s 145 ∆DVH < 2% [15, 16]
Brain Voxel-based classification UTE, T1w n.a. 128 ∆DVH < 2% [17]
Brain Voxel-based classification T1w, T2w 205 s 124 ∆DVH < 0.5 Gy
Γ2%2mm = 98%
[20]
Brain Deep learning T1w 30 s 54 ∆Range = 0.14 ± 1.11% [48]
Brain Deep learning T1w 2 s (2D)
12 s (3D)
82–135 (2D)
82–147 (3D)
Γ2%2mm = 98% (2D)
Γ2%2mm = 97% (3D)
[49]
Brain
Prostate
Voxel-based classification T1/T2*w dual gradient echo 30 s 42 (brain)a
34 (prostate)a
∆DVH < 1.4%
Γ2%2mm = 99%
[18]
Prostate Bulk assignment 3D dual spoiled gradient echo 120 s 83 ∆DVH < 2%/2 Gy
Γ2%2mm = 98%
[19]
Prostate Bulk assignment 3D dual spoiled gradient echo 120 s 81 Mean ∆DVH = 0.6%/1.5 Gy
Γ2%2mm = 93%
[50]
Abdomen
Pediatric
Voxel-based classification T2w TSE 195 s 212 (bone)
125 (lung)
52 (soft tissue)
∆DVH < 4%
Γ2%2mm = 88%
[51]
Liver Deep learning T1w 120 s 73 ∆DVH < 1%
Γ2%2mm = 97%
[52]
  1. Abbreviations: TSE turbo spin echo, UTE ultra-short echo time, T1w T1-weighted, T2w T2-weighted, ∆DVH change in dose-volume histogram parameters, Γ2%2mm 2%, 2 mm gamma criterion, ∆Range change in proton range
  2. ain pre-selected regions of interest