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Table 1 Different tumors and tracers in neuro-oncology for different indications: target delineation (TD), prognostication (P), distinguishing between progressive disease and pseudoprogression (TR)

From: Recent advances of PET imaging in clinical radiation oncology

Tumor entity Tracers Indication Comment
Glioma 18F-FET TD/P/TR Valuable as longer halftime compared to 11C-MET, high diagnostic accuracy with histopathological validation; ongoing trials to confirm clinical benefit, e. g. GLIAA [25]
18F-DOPA TD/P/TR Studies on prognostic relevance and histopathological validation available, e.g. [24, 26], mainly used in the US
11C-MET TD/P Studies on prognostic relevance and histopathological validation available. Aiding in target delineation.
TSPO ligands None Investigational, no histopathological validation studies (ongoing)
Meningioma 68Ga-DOTATOC TD Aiding in target delineation or surgical approach, especially when located at the skull base
68Ga-DOTATATE TD SUV cutoff histologically validated, no relevant data available on response
Brain metastasis 18F-FET TR Differentiation pseudoprogression/radiation necrosis vs. tumor recurrence
CNS lymphoma 18F-FDG None Tumor metabolism, response assessment [27]