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Table 1 Characteristics of patients with radiotherapy-related esophageal fistula

From: Development and validation of a risk prediction model for radiotherapy-related esophageal fistula in esophageal cancer

Characteristics Training cohort Validation cohort
N % N %
Age (years), mean ± SD 61.8 ± 8.9 60.2 ± 10.7
ECOG PS
  ≤ 2 94 69.1 32 68.1
  ≥ 3 42 30.9 15 31.9
T stage
 T1–3 85 62.5 34 72.3
 T4 51 37.5 13 27.7
N stage
 N0–1 69 50.7 20 42.6
 N2–3 67 49.3 27 57.4
Stage
 I 0 0 0 0
 II 14 10.3 5 10.6
 III 91 66.9 29 61.7
 IV 31 22.8 13 27.7
Chemotherapy
 Yes 98 72.1 33 70.2
 No 38 27.9 14 29.8
Re-radiotherapy
 Yes 25 18.4 6 12.8
 No 111 81.6 41 87.2
Single dose of radiation (Gy)
  ≤ 2 129 4.9 7 0.0
  > 2 7 5.1 0 0
Total dose (patients who finished the radiotherapy)
  ≥ 60Gy 58 57.4 39 88.6
  ≥ 50 < 60Gy 34 33.7 2 4.6
  < 50Gy 9 8.9 3 6.8
Diagnostic tool
 CT 76 55.9 12 25.5
 Esophagogram 59 43.4 25 53.2
 Endoscopic 1 0.7 10 21.3
Occurrence time
 During radiotherapy 35 25.7 3 6.4
 After radiotherapy 101 74.3 44 93.6
Median time between the end of radiotherapy and fistula (month) 4.5 5.5
 Fistula type
  Esophageal-respiratory 67 49.3 40 85.1
  Esophageal-mediastinum 66 48.5 4 8.5
  Esophagopleural fistula 2 1.5 1 2.1
  Both esophageal-respiratory and esophageal-mediastinum fistula. 1 0.7 2 4.3
 Therapy
  Conservative treatment 31 22.8 8 17.0
  Esophageal stent 31 22.8 30 63.8
  Nutrient canal 36 26.5 5 10.6
  Gastrostomy 15 11.0 2 4.3
  Radical resection 2 1.5 0 0
  Others 21 15.4 2 4.3