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Table 4 Echocardiographic measurements according to TGF-β1 trajectory groups

From: Transforming growth factor beta 1 levels predict echocardiographic changes at three years after adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer

   Group 1 (n = 19) Group 2 (n = 44)   
Before RT After RT 3 year   Before RT After RT 3 year
n Md (IQR) Md (IQR) Md (IQR) p1 p2 n Md (IQR) Md (IQR) Md (IQR) p1 p2
LV measurements
 LVEDD (mm) 19 46.0 (44.0–48.0) 45.0 (44.0–50.0) 46.0 (42.0–50.0) 0.513 0.446 44 46.0 (44.0–47.0) 46.0 (43.3–47.0) 45.0 (43.0–47.0) 0.904 0.654
 LVESD (mm) 19 31.0 (29.0–34.0) 32.0 (28.0–34.0) 31.0 (29.0–35.0) 0.854 0.954 44 31.0 (29.0–32.8) 30.5 (29.0–31.8) 30.0 (29.0–32.0) 0.781 0.896
 IVS (mm) 19 10.0 (9.0–11.0) 11.0 (10.0–12.0) 11.0 (10.0–11.0) 0.036 0.157 44 10.0 (9.0–11.0) 10.0 (9.0–11.0) 10.0 (9.0–11.0) 0.378 0.775
 PW (mm) 19 10.0 (9.0–11.0) 11.0 (10.0–12.0) 9.0 (10.0–11.0) 0.030 0.434 44 10.0 (9.0–11.0) 10.0 (9.3–11.0) 9.0 (8.3–10.0) 0.144 0.028
LV systolic function
 LV EF (%) 19 62.0 (56.0–65.0 61.0 (58.0–65.0) 60.0 (57.0–63.0) 0.886 0.144 44 62.0 (60.0–65.0 63 (59.3–65.0) 61.5 (57.0–63.0) 1.000 0.092
 GLS (%) 17 ─17.0 (─20.5-─16.0) ─17.0 (─19.5-─15.5) ─16.0 (─18.5-─14.0) 0.373 0.006 44 ─18.0 (─19.8-─15.0) ─17.0 (─20.0-─15.0) ─18.0 (─20.0-─16.0) 0.159 0.762
LV diastolic function
 Mitral inflow E (cm/s) 19 73.5 (66.2–81.9) 66.1 (57.2–79.0) 66.2 (61.7–78.4) 0.113 0.106 44 75.4 (63.8–87.3) 72.4 (60.3–80.0) 71.4 (62.0–89.0) 0.139 0.242
 Ee’ ratio 19 8.3 (6.8–10.2) 7.8 (7.1–11.1) 8.7 (7.1–10.2) 0.701 0.347 44 9.5 (7.7–11.4) 9.3 (7.1–10.2) 8.9 (7.7–11.0) 0.076 0.337
RV function
 TAPSE (mm) 17 24.0 (21.0–28.0) 21.0 (18.5–24.5) 22.0 (20.5–27.5) 0.021 0.363 42 24.5 (20.8–27.3) 22.0 (19.0–26.0) 24.0 (20.0–26.0) 0.001 0.119
 TR gradient (mmHg) 12 21.0 (18.3–26.0) 20.5 (17.3–24.0) 23.5 (19.3–28.5) 0.351 0.381 35 21.0 (17.0–25.0) 22.0 (19.0–24.0) 24.0 (20.0–29.0 0.811 < 0.001
Tissue characterization
 scIBS (dB) 17 15.5 (12.5–21.3) 19.5 (13.7–25.1) 23.3 (20.1–25.8) 0.031 < 0.001 44 17.6 (14.1–22.1) 19.6 (16.3–24.2) 20.3 (18.8–22.8) 0.007 0.002
 rcIBS (dB) 17 18.7 (14.8–21.8) 22.9 (20.1–25.9) 23.5 (19.1–27.0) 0.011 0.013 44 21.1 (17.1–24.6) 23.0 (18.0–26.9) 24.1 (20.3–27.0) 0.208 0.021
 pcIBS (dB) 17 10.3 (7.6–11.9) 9.2 (8.2–12.1) 9.4 (6.5–13.1) 0.579 0.854 43 9.8 (6.8–13.9) 10.3 (8.3–12.5) 10.5 (6.8–13.4) 0.888 0.959
  1. TGF-β1 Transforming growth factor beta 1, RT Radiotherapy, Md Median, IQR Interquartile range, p1 p-value for before to after RT, p2 p-value for before to 3 years after RT, LV Left ventricle, LVEDD Left ventricle end diastolic diameter, LVESD Left ventricle end systolic diameter, IVS Interventricular septum thickness, PW Posterior wall thickness, EF Ejection fraction, GLS Global longitudinal strain, Mitral inflow E First peak of diastole, Ee’ Pulsed tissue doppler e’ velocity, RV Right ventricle, TAPSE Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, TR gradient Tricuspid regurgitation maximal gradient, scIBS Septal calibrated integrated backscatter, rcIBS Right ventricle integrated backscatter, pcIBS Posterior wall of left ventricle integrated backscatter