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Table 1 Summary of the detectors currently available [5, 16,17,18,19]

From: Preclinical dosimetry: exploring the use of small animal phantoms

Detector Specifications Advantages Disadvantages
Ionisation chambers • Commissioning • Dose calibration • QA • Uncertainty: < 5% • Dose: up to 1000Gy • High precision and accuracy • Various models, including waterproof models • No effect from dose rate • Instant readout • Requires high voltage • Size • Elaborate care
Radio-graphic Film • Imaging • Dosimetry • Phantom compatible • Uncertainty: < 5% • Dose: 0.1-5Gy • Great spatial resolution • 2D dose distribution • No effect from dose rate • Various film types • Useful for assessing field size, flatness and symmetry • Complex processing • Film type/batch variation • Dose calibration required • Affected by energy • Light sensitive • Not reusable
Radio-chromic Film • Imaging • 2D Dosimetry • Phantom compatible • Uncertainty: < 5% • Dose: 0.1-200Gy • Self-processing • Tissue-equivalent • No effect from dose rate/energy • Great spatial resolution • Useful for radiation field size, flatness and symmetry • Results vary between film types and batches • Dose calibration required • Not reusable • Requires stabilisation period after irradiation
TLDs • In vivo dosimetry • Phantom compatible • Audit purposes • Uncertainty: < 5% • Dose:<200Gy • Small size • Multiple point readings • Various models available • Reusable • Laborious calibration • Delayed results • Signal erased during readout • Results vary between batch • Light sensitive
OSLDs • In vivo dosimetry • Phantom compatible • Audit purposes • Uncertainty: < 4% • Dose: <10Gy • Moderate size • Multiple point readings • Quick readout • No effect from dose rate • Light sensitive • Limited availability • Not suitable for calibration • Energy dependent
Silicon Diodes • In vivo dosimetry • Detector arrays • Dosimetry • Uncertainty: < 3% • Dose: <10Gy • Moderate size • Instant readout • Good sensitivity • No external voltage • Small field dosimetry • Requires connecting cables • Temperature sensitive • Unsuitable for calibration • Unsuitable at higher doses
MOSFETs • In vivo dosimetry • Small field dosimetry • Detector arrays • Uncertainty: < 5% • Dose: <10Gy • Small size (0.2 × 0.2 mm) • Multiple point readings • quick readout • Good sensitivity • Calibration required • Energy, temperature and directional dependent • Unsuitable for calibration
Diamond Detectors • In vivo and small field dosimetry • Uncertainty: < 3% • Dose: <10Gy • Small size • Tissue-equivalent • High sensitivity • Resistant to radiation • External equipment required • Requires pre-irradiation • Results vary among detectors • Unsuitable for calibration
Alanine – Electron para-magnetic resonance • In vivo dosimetry • Phantom compatible • Audit purposes • Uncertainty: < 4% • Dose: 10-150000Gy • Tissue-equivalent • Readout process does not diminish signal • Readout requires specific equipment
Gel dosimetry detectors • 3D dosimetry • Audit purposes • Uncertainty: 5–10% • Dose: <10Gy • Tissue-equivalent • Both phantom and detector • 3D dose distribution • Elaborate preparation • Continued processing • Difficult reproducibility • Unsuitable for calibration
  1. Key: QA quality assurance, TLDs thermoluminescent detectors, OSLDs optically-stimulated luminescent detectors, MOSFETs metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors