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Table 1 Summary of the detectors currently available [5, 16,17,18,19]

From: Preclinical dosimetry: exploring the use of small animal phantoms

Detector Specifications Advantages Disadvantages
Ionisation chambers • Commissioning
• Dose calibration
• QA
• Uncertainty: < 5%
• Dose: up to 1000Gy
• High precision and accuracy
• Various models, including waterproof models
• No effect from dose rate
• Instant readout
• Requires high voltage
• Size
• Elaborate care
Radio-graphic Film • Imaging
• Dosimetry
• Phantom compatible
• Uncertainty: < 5%
• Dose: 0.1-5Gy
• Great spatial resolution
• 2D dose distribution
• No effect from dose rate
• Various film types
• Useful for assessing field size, flatness and symmetry
• Complex processing
• Film type/batch variation
• Dose calibration required
• Affected by energy
• Light sensitive
• Not reusable
Radio-chromic Film • Imaging
• 2D Dosimetry
• Phantom compatible
• Uncertainty: < 5%
• Dose: 0.1-200Gy
• Self-processing
• Tissue-equivalent
• No effect from dose rate/energy
• Great spatial resolution
• Useful for radiation field size, flatness and symmetry
• Results vary between film types and batches
• Dose calibration required
• Not reusable
• Requires stabilisation period after irradiation
TLDs • In vivo dosimetry
• Phantom compatible
• Audit purposes
• Uncertainty: < 5%
• Dose:<200Gy
• Small size
• Multiple point readings
• Various models available
• Reusable
• Laborious calibration
• Delayed results
• Signal erased during readout
• Results vary between batch
• Light sensitive
OSLDs • In vivo dosimetry
• Phantom compatible
• Audit purposes
• Uncertainty: < 4%
• Dose: <10Gy
• Moderate size
• Multiple point readings
• Quick readout
• No effect from dose rate
• Light sensitive
• Limited availability
• Not suitable for calibration
• Energy dependent
Silicon Diodes • In vivo dosimetry
• Detector arrays
• Dosimetry
• Uncertainty: < 3%
• Dose: <10Gy
• Moderate size
• Instant readout
• Good sensitivity
• No external voltage
• Small field dosimetry
• Requires connecting cables
• Temperature sensitive
• Unsuitable for calibration
• Unsuitable at higher doses
MOSFETs • In vivo dosimetry
• Small field dosimetry
• Detector arrays
• Uncertainty: < 5%
• Dose: <10Gy
• Small size (0.2 × 0.2 mm)
• Multiple point readings
• quick readout
• Good sensitivity
• Calibration required
• Energy, temperature and directional dependent
• Unsuitable for calibration
Diamond Detectors • In vivo and small field dosimetry
• Uncertainty: < 3%
• Dose: <10Gy
• Small size
• Tissue-equivalent
• High sensitivity
• Resistant to radiation
• External equipment required
• Requires pre-irradiation
• Results vary among detectors
• Unsuitable for calibration
Alanine – Electron para-magnetic resonance • In vivo dosimetry
• Phantom compatible
• Audit purposes
• Uncertainty: < 4%
• Dose: 10-150000Gy
• Tissue-equivalent
• Readout process does not diminish signal
• Readout requires specific equipment
Gel dosimetry detectors • 3D dosimetry
• Audit purposes
• Uncertainty: 5–10%
• Dose: <10Gy
• Tissue-equivalent
• Both phantom and detector
• 3D dose distribution
• Elaborate preparation
• Continued processing
• Difficult reproducibility
• Unsuitable for calibration
  1. Key: QA quality assurance, TLDs thermoluminescent detectors, OSLDs optically-stimulated luminescent detectors, MOSFETs metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors