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Table 3 Risk factors for secondary arm lymphedema (BCRL) – univariate Kaplan-Meier-Analysis and Cox-Regression-Analysis for the subgroup of BCRL

From: Frequency and risk factors for arm lymphedema after multimodal breast-conserving treatment of nodal positive breast Cancer – a long-term observation

Risk factor
Univariate Kaplan-Meier-Analysis Category p-value 95% CI
 Chemotherapy adjuvant y/n 0.001 7.7–10.2
 pN Stage N1 vs N2 + N3 0.032 4.2–8.2
 Postoperative complications y/n 0.046 0.0–11.4
 Age (CP) CI of the median 0.228 9.6–12.2
 Chemotherapy neoadjuvant y/n 0.338 8.9–14.1
 pT Stage T1 vs. T2-T4 0.621 8.9–11.8
 Grading G1 + G2 vs. G3 0.270 10.4–19.2
 Tumor size (CP) CI of the median 0.780 9.3–12.2
 Resection volume (CP) CI of the median 0.510 10.8–18.9
 N° dissected lymph nodes (CP) CI of the median 0.348 8.2–11.1
 N° positive lymph nodes 1–3 vs. > 3 0.164 6.2–10.6
 Hormonal therapy y/n 0.889 9.1–11.5
 Radiation SCRT y/n 0.762 11.5–18.1
 Radiation boost y/n 0.332 9.8–19.8
 Cardiovascular comorbidity y/n 0.512 10.2–19.4
 Other comorbidities y/n 0.927 4.9–12.5
 Tumor recurrence (total) y/n 0.949 7.2–14.1
Multivariate Cox-Regression-Analysis Patients with BCRL p-value HR; 95% CI
 Chemotherapy adjuvant 58/133 (43.6%) 0.005 2.5; 0.21–0.76
 Postoperative complications 5/9 (55.6%) 0.083 2.3; 0.18–1.11
 pN Stage 16/35 (54.7%) 0.119 1.6; 0.32–1.10
  1. CI Confidence interval, CP: Continuous parameter