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Table 4 Comparison of our findings with those of other studies

From: Treatment outcomes of proton or carbon ion therapy for skull base chordoma: a retrospective study

Author Year No. F/U (m) % of surgerya Radiotherpay Total dose fractionations Dose/fraction 5y-LC 5y-OS Late complications
Debus [6] 2000 37 27 89 XRT 66.6 37 1.8 50 82 Hemiparasis: 1 patient
Zorlu [7] 2000 18 43 61 XRT 60 30 2 23 35 N.A.
Sahgal [27] 2015 24 36 93 XRT 76 38 2 65 86 Grade 3 hearing loss: 1 patient
Grade 3 Hypopituitarism: 1 patient
Radiation induced secondory malignancy: 1 patient
Hug [11] 1999 33 33 95 PT 64.8–79.2 36–44 1.8 59 79 Brain stem toxicity: 8% at 5 years
Temporal lobe injury: 13% at 5 years
Optic neuropathy: 4.4%
Ares [12] 2009 42 38 100 PT 67–74 N.A. 1.8–2.0 81 62 Grade 3 or 4 optic neuropathy: 2 patients Central nervous system necrosis: 2 patients
Hayashi [13] 2016 19 60 100 PT 77.44–78.4 b 56–64 1.21–1.4 75 83 Temporal lobe necrosis: 1 patients
Schulz-Ertner [14] 2007 84 31 100 CIT 60–70 20 3.0–3.5 70 89 Grade 3 optic neuropathy: 4 patients Grade 3 necrosis of a fat plomb: 1 patient
Mizoe [15] 2009 19 33 N.A. CIT 48–60.8 16 3.0–3.8 85 88 No patient experienced severe late toxicities.
Uhl [16] 2014 155 72 90 CIT 60 20 3 72 85 No patient experienced severe late toxicities.
This study 2018 11 86 36 PT 65.0–70.2 26 2.5–2.7 80 73 Grade 3 brain necrosis: 1 patient Grade 3 optic neuropathy: 1 patient
   13 56 77 CIT 57.6–74.0 16–37 2.0–3.6 92 100 Grade 3 brain necrosis: 1 patient Grade 4 bleeding: 1 patient
  1. LC local control, OS overall survival, XRT photon therapy, PT proton therapy, CIT carbon ion therapy
  2. aIncluding total, subtotal and partial resection. Only biopsy is excluded
  3. bUsing hyperfractionation