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Table 1 Overview of published trials on treatment efficacy and OS

From: Radioligand therapy of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: current approaches

First author (n: number of patients) Compound used Activity PSA fall ≥ 50% CT (RECIST) PSMA PET Symptomatic response Biochemical/radiological PFS Overall survival
Vallabhajosula et al. 2005 [46] 177Lu-J591 0.3–2.7 GBq/m2for 177Lu NA NA NA NA NA NA
Lu (n: 35) = 177 90Y-J591 0.18–0.7 GBq/m2for 90Y
n (28) = 90Y
Zechmann et al. 2014 [37] (n: 28) 131I-MIP 1095 2.0–7.2 GBq 61% NA NA 23% CR Median BPFS 126 days NA
PD 14% 61% PR
Ahmadzadehfar et al. 2015 [14] (n: 10) 177Lu-PSMA-617 4.1–6.1 GBq 50% NA NA NA NA NA
PD 30%
Ahmadzadehfar et al. 2016 [26] (n: 24) 177Lu-PSMA-617 4.1–7.1 GBq 42% PR 40% PR 80% NA NA NA
PD 21% SD 55% SD 0%
PD 5% PD 20%
Kratochwil et al. 2016 [32] (n: 30) 177Lu-PSMA-617 4–6 GBq 43–72% NA NA NA NA NA
PD 27%
Baum et al. 2016 [51] (n: 56) 177Lu-PSMA I&T 3.6–8.7 GBq 59% PR 20% PR 56% 33% PR Medial radiological PFS 13.7 months  
PD 11% SD 52% SD 8%
PD 28% PD 36%
Rahbar et al. 2016 [25] (n: 74) 177Lu-PSMA-617 6 MBq 31% NA NA NA NA NA
PD 23%
Rahbar et al. 2016 [39] (n: 28) 177Lu-PSMA-617 7 MBq 32–50% NA NA NA NA 29.4 vs. 19.7 weeks
PD 20%
Heck et al. 2016 [48] (n: 22) 177Lu-PSMA-I&T 7–7.8 GBq 33% PR 11% Integrated CR 5% 14% CR Median PFS 175 days NA
PD 32% SD 56% SD 63% 42% PR
PD 33% PD 32%
Yadav et al. 2017 [52] (n: 31) 177Lu-PSMA-617 1.1–5.5 MBq Mean pre and post   CR 33% Analgesic score reduced from 2.5 to 1.8 Median PFS 12 months Median OS 15 weeks
275/41 PR 50%
PD 20% SD 17% (n = 6)
Fendler et al. 2016 [23] (n: 15) 177Lu-PSMA-617 6 MBq 60% PR 27% NA NA NA NA
SD 40%
PD 33%
Kratochwil et al. 2016 [36] (n: 2) 225Ac-PSMA-617 4–6 GBq 100% NA NA NA NA NA
Ahmadzadehfar et al. 2017 [27] (n: 52) 177Lu-PSMA-617 5.6–6 MBq 44% 1st cycle NA NA NA NA Median OS 60 weeks
59.6%
2nd cycle
59.6% 3rd cycle
Rahbar et al. 2017 [16] (n: 145) 177Lu-PSMA-617 2–8 MBq 45% PR 45% NA NA NA NA
SD 28%
  1. NA not available, MBq mega becquerel, CR complete response, PD progressive disease, PR partial response, OS overall survival, PFS progressive free survival, BPFS biochemical progressive free survival, PSMA prostate specific membrane antigen, PSA prostate specific antigen, RECIST response evaluation criteria in solid tumors, PET positron emission tomography, CT computed tomography