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Table 3 Univariate and multivariate analyses on prognostic factors of cause-specific survival in patients with stage III disease (n = 239)

From: Preoperative radiotherapy improves survival in rectal signet-ring cell carcinoma-a population-based study

Characteristic Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
  HR (95% CI) p HR (95% CI) p
Sex
 Male 1   
 Female 1.257 (0.890–1.776) 0.195
Age 1.013 (1.003–1.024) 0.012 1.013 (1.000–1.025) 0.045
Race
 White 1   
 Black 1.463 (0.804–2.665) 0.213
 Other and unknown 1.037 (0.649–1.659) 0.879
Tumor grade
 G1–2 1   
 G3–4 0.616 (0.332–1.143) 0.125
Tumor size (mm) 1.017 (1.010–1.025) <0.001 1.019 (1.012–1.027) <0.001
Number of RLNs 0.996 (0.983–1.010) 0.608
Number of PLNs 1.041 (1.018–1.064) 0.001 1.016 (0.990–1.043) 0.222
Treatment
 Surgery alone 1   1  
 Preoperative RT 0.418 (0.262–0.667) <0.001 0.467 (0.274–0.794) 0.005
 Postoperative RT 0.565 (0.358–0.892) 0.014 0.615 (0.374–1.011) 0.055
  1. CI confidence interval, G1 well differentiated, G2 moderately differentiated, G3 poorly differentiated, G4 undifferentiated, HR hazard ratio, PLNs positive lymph nodes, RLNs removes lymph nodes, RT radiotherapy