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Table 2 Univariate and multivariate analyses on prognostic factors of cause-specific survival in all patients (n = 292)

From: Preoperative radiotherapy improves survival in rectal signet-ring cell carcinoma-a population-based study

Characteristic Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
  HR (95% CI) p HR (95% CI) p
Sex
 Male 1   
 Female 1.299 (0.940–1.794) 0.113
Age 1.012 (1.002–1.022) 0.019 1.017 (1.005–1.030) 0.007
Race
 White 1   1  
 Black 1.698 (1.004–2.871) 0.048 1.802 (0.974–3.334) 0.061
 Other and unknown 1.247 (0.809–1.924) 0.317 1.524 (0.930–2.495) 0.094
Tumor grade
 G1–2 1   
 G3–4 0.850 (0.470–1.537) 0.590
Tumor size (mm) 1.016 (1.009–1.023) < 0.001 1.017 (1.009–1.025) < 0.001
Number of RLNs 0.997 (0.984–1.010) 0.651
Number of PLNs 1.047 (1.026–1.068) < 0.001 1.021 (0.995–1.048) 0.120
Tumor stage
 II 1   1  
 III 1.922 (1.189–3.108) 0.008 2.289 (1.170–4.478) 0.016
Treatment
 Surgery alone 1   1  
 Preoperative RT 0.627 (0.403–0.978) 0.039 0.656 (0.391–1.100) 0.110
 Postoperative RT 0.812 (0.520–1.268) 0.359 0.788 (0.470–1.323) 0.368
  1. CI confidence interval, G1 well differentiated, G2 moderately differentiated, G3 poorly differentiated, G4 undifferentiated, HR hazard ratio, PLNs positive lymph nodes, RLNs removes lymph nodes, RT radiotherapy