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Table 1 Results of the evaluation and comparison of the number of artifacts in the reconstructed images (EI = end inspiration; EE = end-expiration)

From: Reduction of breathing irregularity-related motion artifacts in low-pitch spiral 4D CT by optimized projection binning

   Breathing state-specific evaluation (max. inspiration to max. inspiration)  
   EI ← Expiration states → EE ←Inspiration states →
Reconstruction Mean 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90%
Number of motion artifacts (mean ± standard deviation over patients)  
Phase-based (PB) 4.8±2.2 5.8±2.9 5.2±2.8 5.2±2.4 4.1±2.5 3.7±2.6 3.7±2.3 4.3±2.6 5.4±2.4 5.6±2.4 5.4±2.9
Amplitude-based (LAB) 4.6±2.1 5.8±2.6 5.2±2.4 4.9±2.6 4.6±2.6 3.7±2.4 3.6±2.1 4.0±2.5 4.5±2.3 4.5±2.3 5.0±2.8
Advanced recon. (AR) 3.3±1.7 3.6±2.5 3.3±2.1 3.6±2.1 3.2±1.9 3.0±1.9 2.6±1.9 3.4±2.0 3.3±2.0 3.3±1.9 4.1±2.3
Average reduction of artifacts by first mentioned approach compared to second approach  
LAB vs. PB 5.1% −0.6% 0.0% 5.8% −12.2% 0.0% 2.7% 6.2% 16.7% 20.2% 7.7%
AR vs. LAB 27.4% 38.5% 36.3% 27.2% 29.7% 20.5% 27.1% 16.5% 27.4% 26.9% 18.1%
AR vs. PB 31.1% 38.2% 36.3% 31.4% 21.1% 20.5% 29.1% 21.7% 39.5% 41.7% 24.4%
  1. Differences are significant on 5% significance level