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Table 2 Prognostic tools relating to brachytherapy

From: An appraisal of analytical tools used in predicting clinical outcomes following radiation therapy treatment of men with prostate cancer: a systematic review

Author Model type Variables Variable readily available? Validation (I/E) Accuracy Metric Sample size (events) Outcome Treatment
Frank [25] Survival (Nomogram presented) Biopsy gleason score, clinical stage, EBRT, pre-treatment PSA, Yes External validation of Prostogram 0.49; 95% CI 0.37–0.61 c-index 208 (15) 5 year BFFF Brachytherapy
Kaplan [12] Survival (Nomogram presented) Kattan’s: Pretreatment PSA level, Gleason score, clinical stage, adjuvant EBRT Yes External validation of Kattan 0.51 c-index 747 (31) BFFF 125 iodine brachytherapy
Frank [47] Survival (Nomogram presented) Pretreatment PSA level, Gleason sum score, T stage, and EBRT Yes External validation of Prostogram 0.66 c-index 683 (29) BCF Brachytherapy
Zelefsky [10] Proportional hazards regression (Nomogram presented) Clinical stage, Gleason, pretreatment PSA Yes Not stated 0.70 c-index 1466 (NR) BCF Brachytherapy
Potters [16] Survival (Cox,Nomogram presented) Clinical stage, Biopsy Gleason sum, Isotope used, EBRT, D90, pretreatment PSA No, includes isotope used, D90 Internal (bootstrapping) 0.71 c-index 5931 (NR) 9-year BFFF Brachytherapy
D’Amico [42] Survival Model (Fine and Gray) Year of brachytherapy, Log (PSA)per unit increase, Gleason score, Age Yes Not stated Not stated NA 221 (32) PCSM and presence of hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer Brachytherapy
Sylvester [57] Survival model (Cox) PSA only (<10, 10.1–19.9, >20) Yes Not stated Not stated NA 215 (NR) 15 year BFFF Brachytherapy
Sylvester [57] Survival model (Cox) PSA only (<10, 10.1–19.9, >20) Yes Not stated Not stated NA 215 (NR) 15 year PCSM Brachytherapy
Sylvester [57] Survival model (Cox) PSA only (<10, 10.1–19.9, >20) Yes Not stated Not stated NA 215 (NR) 15 year OS. Brachytherapy
Bittner [27] Survival model (Cox) Number of biopsy cores, PSA, Gleason score, % positive biopsies, V100, EBRT, Risk group, hypertension, Tobacco use, perineural invasion No, tobacco use, V100, hypertension included. Not stated Not stated NA 1613 (NR) BFFF Brachytherapy
Bittner [27] Survival model (Cox) PSA, Gleason score, % positive biopsies, EBRT, Risk group, hypertension No, hypertension Not stated Not stated NA 1613 (NR) PCSM Brachytherapy
Bittner [27] Survival model (Cox) Number of biopsy cores, age at implant, BMI, V100, D90, EBRT, Risk group, hypertension, diabetes, Tobacco use No, BMI, V100, D90, hypertension, diabetes included Not stated Not stated NA 1613 (NR) OS Brachytherapy
Cooperberg [39] Survival model (Cox) CAPRA scores (based on PSA, Biopsy Gleason, Age at diagnosis, clinical tumour stage and % biopsy cores positive for cancer) Yes Not stated Not stated NA 1441 (17) PCSM Brachytherapy
Yoshida [15] Survival model PRIX score derived from PSA, Gleason and clinical stage Yes External Not stated NA 100 (9) 5 year BCF HDR-ISBT
Yoshida [15] Survival model PRIX score derived from PSA, Gleason and clinical stage Yes External Not stated NA 100 (9) 5 year OS HDR-ISBT
Marshall [11] Survival model (Cox) Age, Risk group, hormone treatment, Total BED Yes Not stated Not stated NA 2495 (251) BCF Brachytherapy
  1. Abbreviations OS overall survival, BCF bio chemical failure, BFFF bio chemical freedom from failure, PCSM prostate cancer specific mortality, HDR-ISBT high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy, EBRT external beam radiotherapy, NR not reported, NA not applicable