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Table 1 Summary of papers describing prognostic tools relating to clinical outcomes following radiation therapy (2007–2015)

From: An appraisal of analytical tools used in predicting clinical outcomes following radiation therapy treatment of men with prostate cancer: a systematic review

Author Recruitment window Country Population Outcome Study type Setting
Bittner [27] 1995–2006 USA Prostate cancer patients treated with brachytherapy BFFF, PCSM Retrospective Single centre
Buyyounouski [38] 1989–2000 Canada, Aust, USA Men previously treated with EBRT for clinically localized prostate adenocarcinoma and subsequently diagnosed with BCF. PCSM Retrospective Multi-centre
Cooperberg [39] 1995–2007 USA Men enrolled in CaPSURE PCSM Retrospective Multi-centre (CaPSURE Registry)
Cooperberg [40] 1995–2008 USA Men with localized disease who underwent prostatectomy, received external-beam radiation, or received primary androgen deprivation; and had at least 6 months of follow-up recorded. 10 year PCSM Retrospective Multi-centre (CaPSURE Registry)
D’Ambrosio [41] 1989–2004 USA Men with prostate cancer treated with RT. BCF Retrospective Single centre
D’Amico [42] 1991–2005 USA Men with high-risk prostate cancer (locally or advanced) and 10 year life expectancy treated with brachytherapy who were observed for a min of 2 years. PCSM and presence of hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer. Prospective Multi-centre
D’Amico [43] 1988–2004 USA Men who underwent RT for prostate cancer for at least 1 high-risk feature. PCSM Prospective Multi-centre
Delouya [19] 2002-Not stated Canada Men with low or intermediate-risk prostate cancer treated with brachytherapy, EBRT within a phase II or III research protocol, or ERBT outside of a protocol. BCF Retrospective Single centre
Denham [44] 1996–2000 Australia & New Zealand Men with locally advanced prostate cancer receiving RT PCSM Prospective Multi-centre
Engineer [9] 1984–2004 India Patients with a histological diagnosis of prostate cancer BFFF, PCSM, DM, BCF, OS Retrospective Single centre
Feng [28] 1998–2008 USA Men with clinically localized prostate cancer treated with EBRT. FFM, PCSM, BFFF, OS Retrospective Single centre
Frank [45] 1996–2006 USA, Canada, Netherlands. Men with prostate cancer treated with brachytherapy with at least 30 months of follow-up. PSA failure. Retrospective Multi -centre
Frank [25] 1998–2006 USA Men with prostate cancer treated with permament 125 I brachytherapy. 5 year BFFF Retrospective Single centre
Halverson [46] 1998–2008 USA Men with clinically localized prostate cancer treated with EBRT with or without adjuvant ADT BFFF Retrospective Single centre
Huang [47] 1993–2003 USA, Australia Men with clinical Stage T1c-T3N0M0 prostate adenocarcinoma treated with EBRT with or without a high-dose rate brachytherapy boost. BCF, DM, PCSM,OS. Retrospective Single centre
Kaplan [12] 2000–2009 Israel Patients with prostate cancer treated with 125 I- brachytherapy. BFFF Retrospective Single centre
Krishnan [20] 2003–2008 Canada Men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer with a minimum follow-up of 3 years. BCF Retrospective Single centre
Kubicek [48] 1998–2004 USA Men with biopsy proven T1-T2 prostate adenocarcinoma treated with EBRT & LDR. CSS Retrospective Single centre
Marshall [11] 1990–2009 USA Men treated with brachytherapy for biopsy-proven prostate adenocarcinoma. BCF Retrospective Single centre
McKenna [49] 1998–2003 USA Men with biopsy-proved prostate cancer who had MRI imaging prior to EBRT. Metastatic recurrence and BCF Retrospective Single centre
Murgic [50] 1998–2008 USA Men with clinically localized prostate adenocarcinoma treated with EBRT. BFFF, FFM,PCSM and OS Retrospective Single centre
Potters [16] Not stated USA Prostate cancer patients treated with brachytherapy. 9-year BFFF Retrospective Multi-centre
Proust-Lima [51] Not stated USA Men treated for localized prostate cancer with EBRT. BCF Prospective Multi-centre
Qian [52] 1998–2008 USA Men who were treated with EBRT for clinically localized prostate cancer with or without neoadjuvant or adjuvant ADT. BFFF, FFM,OS, PCSM. Retrospective Single centre
Rodrigues [14] Not stated Canada Men with prostate cancer. BFFF, OS Retrospective Multi-centre (GUROC ProCaRS database)
Sabolch [53] 1998–2008 USA Men treated for localized prostate cancer with EBRT. BFFF, FFM,OS, PCSM. Prospective Single centre
Sanpaolo [21] 2000–2004 Italy Men with T1-T3 NO prostate cancer. BCF Retrospective Single centre
Slater [54] 1991–1999 USA Randomly selected prostate cancer patients treated with proton and photon beam therapy. bNED Retrospective Single centre
Spratt [55] 1997–2008 USA Men with localized prostate cancer were treated with IMRT. BCF, DMFS, BCR Retrospective Single centre
Steigler [56] 1996–2000 Australia & New Zealand Men with localised advanced prostate cancer treated with RT and experienced BCF prior to clinical failure or secondary theraputic intervention. TTBF, PCSM,distant progression and STI from BCF Retrospective Multi-centre
Sylvester [57] 1988–1992 USA Men with clinically localized prostate cancer treated with implanted I-125. 15 year BFFF,CSS and OS. Prospective Consecutive case series
Taylor [58] Not stated USA Men with localized prostate cancer,NO/MO treated with RT. Clinical recurrence (local, regional or distant) Retrospective Multi-centre
Thames [59] 1987–1995 USA Men with clinical stages T1b, T1c, and T2 N0M0 biopsy proven prostate adenocarcinoma. BCF Retrospective Multi-centre
Vainshtein [18] 1998–2008 USA Men with localized prostate cancer treated with EBRT, +/− ADT FFM, PCSM. Prospective Single centre
Vance [60] 1998–2008 USA Men with clinically localized prostate cancer treated with EBRT, with or without neoadjuvant or adjuvant ADT. BFFF, DMFS, PCSM & OS. Retrospective Single centre
Wattson [61] 1991–2007 USA Men with high-risk prostate cancer. PCSM Retrospective Multicentre
Westphalen [62] 1998–2007 USA Prostate cancer patients who underwent endorectal MR and MR spectroscopy prior to EBRT. BCF Retrospective Multi-centre (national administrative data set)
Williams [17] 1991–2002 US, Canada, Australia Men with clinical T1–4 N0/X M0/X prostate adenocarcinoma treated with EBRT. BCF Retrospective Multi-centre
Yoshida [15] 2003–2008 Japan Men with histologically-proven prostate adenocarcinoma, treated with HDR-ISBT. 5 year PSA failure and OS Retrospective Single centre
Yu [63] 1987–2001 USA Men with prostate cancer treated with EBRT. BCF Retrospective Single centre
Yu [64] 1993–2002 USA Men newly diagnosed with clinically node-negative, localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate treated with EBRT. BCF Retrospective Single centre
Zaorsky [65] 1992–2004 USA Men with clinical stage T1-4, NO/NX-N1, MO adenocarcinoma of the prostate received RT with or without adjuvant ADT. BCF,DM, OS. Retrospective Single centre
Zelefsky [66] 1988–2004 USA Men with clinically staged T1-T3 node-negative prostate cancer treated with 3D-CRT or IMRT. DMFS, BFFF. Retrospective Single centre
Zelefsky [67] 1998–2000 USA Men with clinically localized prostate cancer treated with 3D-CRT or IMRT. DM,PCSM,BFFF Retrospective Single centre
Zelefsky [68] 1988–2004 USA Men with Stage T1-T3 prostate cancer treated with 3D-CRT or IMRT. PSA relapse Retrospective Single centre
Zelefsky [10] 1998–2009 USA Men with clinically localised prostate cancer treated with brachytherapy. BFFF Retrospective Single centre
Zumsteg [69] 1992–2007 USA Men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer, but without high-risk features treated with EBRT. BCF, BFFF, LF,PCSM, DM. Retrospective Single centre
  1. Abbreviations: OS overall survival, CaPSURE Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavour, RT radiotherapy, BCF bio chemical failure, BFFF bio chemical freedom from failure, PCSM prostate cancer specific mortality, PSA-RFS prostate-specific antigen recurrence-free survival, LF local failure, DM distant metastases, DMFS distant metastases-free survival, FFM freedom from metastases, HDR-ISBT high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy, TTBF time to bio chemical failure, STI secondary therapeutic intervention, bNED bio chemical no evidence of diseaese, 2D-CRT 2D - Conformal radiotherapy, 3D-CRT 3D -Conformal radiotherapy, EBRT external beam radiotherapy, LDR brachytherapy low dose rate brachytherapy, NO/NX no nodal involvement, I-125 Iodine 125 brachytherapy