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Table 4 IORT studies for prostate cancer

From: Intraoperative radiotherapy in gynaecological and genito-urinary malignancies: focus on endometrial, cervical, renal, bladder and prostate cancers

Reference N. pts Patients’ selection Surgical approach IORT dose (Gy) Technique Adjuvant EBRT BRFS Overall survival Toxicity
Krengli (ISIORT) [2] 108 Intermediate-high riska NA 8-15 Gy with EBRT 18–21 Gy single shoot IORT or 50-KV NA NA NA NA
Krengli [53] 38 Intermediate-high riska Retropubic approach IORT + Prostatectomy 10-12 Gy IORT 46-50 Gy, 2 Gy/fx 82% 2-years 100% Lymphocele 16% hematoma 6%
Rocco [54] 33 Intermediate-high riska Retropubic approach IORT + Prostatectomy 12 Gy IORT 45 Gy, 1.8 Gy/fx 97% 2-years 100% GU: 17% ≥ G2
GI: 10% ≥ G2
Saracino [55] 34 Intermediate riska Retropubic approach Prostatectomy + IORT 16-22 Gy IORT No 77% NA No GU/GI toxicities ≥ G1
Orecchia [56] 11 High-riska Retropubic approach IORT + Prostatectomy 12 Gy IORT 45 Gy, 1.8 Gy/fx NA NA No GU/GI toxicities ≥ G1
Kato [57] 54 Stage B2-D1b Perineal/retropubic No prostatectomy 25-30 Gy IORT 30 Gy, 2 Gy/fx 74% NA Early GI G3: 7%
Higashi [58] 35 Stage B-C b Perineal/retropubic No prostatectomy 25-30 Gy IORT 30 Gy, 2 Gy/fx NA 5-years 87% (stage C) 5-years 92% (stage B) NA
Abe [59] 21 Stage B2-days b Perineal 28-35 Gy or 20–25 Gy (if combined with EBRT) IORT 50 Gy NA 5-years 72% GU: 100% early ematuria 10% early pollakiuria
Kojima [60] 30 Stage B-C b Perineal/retropubic No prostatectomy -- IORT NA NA 5-years 43% NA
Takahashi [61] 14 Stage B2-days b Perineal No prostatectomy 28-35 Gy or 20–25 Gy (if combined with EBRT) IORT 50 Gy NA NA 0%
  1. pts patients, GU genito-urinary, GI gastro-intestinal, BRFS biochemical relapse-free survival, NA not available
  2. aNational Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines NCCN [6]
  3. bWhitemore-Jewett staging system [Whitmore 1956, Jewett 1975]