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Table 3 IORT studiesfor bladder cancer

From: Intraoperative radiotherapy in gynaecological and genito-urinary malignancies: focus on endometrial, cervical, renal, bladder and prostate cancers

Reference N. pts Stage EBRT Treatment Local control (5 years) Overall survival 5-years Toxicity
Hallemeier [35] 11 Local recurrence Neoadjuvant Surgery + IORT (12.5 Gy) 51% 16% NA
Koning [36] 1040 T1-T2 Neoadjuvant surgery, Ir-192 (25–40 Gy) 75% 62% Fistula 24, ulcers/necroses 144
van Onna [37] 111 T1-T2 Neoadjuvant Ir-192 (40 Gy) NA 70% Fistula 5
GU 5
van der Steen-Banasik [38] 76 T1-T2 Neoadjuvant Cs-137, Ir-192 (30–60 Gy) 70% 57% NA
Blank [39] 122 T1-T2-T3 Neoadjuvant Ir-192 (20–70 Gy) 76% 73% GU 5
Nieuwenhuijzen [40] 108 T1-T2 Neoadjuvant Ir-192 73% 62% NA
De Crevoisier [41] 58 T1-T2-T3 Neoadjuvant surgery, Ir-192 (60 Gy) 65% 60% 5 major late toxicities
Gerard [42] 27 T2, T3 No Surgery + IORT 85% 53% NA
Pernot [43] 82 T1, T2, T3, T4, Tx Neoadjuvant surgery Ir-192 (30–50 Gy 78% 73% 7 late toxcities ≥ G3
Calvo [44] 40 T2, T3, T4 Neoadjuvant surgery + IORT (15 Gy) NA 68% NA
Rozan [45] 205 T1-T2-T3 Neoadjuvant surgery Ir-192 (30–50 Gy NA 77.4% T1, 62.9% T2, 46.8% T3 haematuria, fistula, chronic cystitis 29
Batterman [46] 85 T2 Neoadjuvant Ra-226 74% 55% NA
Mazeron [47] 24 T2 Adjuvant surgery, Ir-192 92% 58% NA
van der Werf-Messing [48] 328 T2 Neoadjuvant Ra-226 77% 56% NA
Matsumoto [49] 28 T2 Adjuvant IORT 82% 62% NA
  1. Pts patients, EBRT External beam radiation therapy, Ra-226 brachytherapy, radium needles, Ir-192 brachytherapy, afterloading iridium, IORT intraoperative electron radiation therapy