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Table 1 Plan comparison between IMRT, PBT and PAT. (average of nine patients)

From: A treatment planning study of proton arc therapy for para-aortic lymph node tumors: dosimetric evaluation of conventional proton therapy, proton arc therapy, and intensity modulated radiotherapy

  IMRT PBT PAT P*
PTV
 Coverage (%) 98.5 ± 0.02 99.0 ± 0.01 99.6 ± 0.01 IMRT vs. PAT (1.000), PBT vs. PAT (0.145)
 D2% (Gy) 63.2 ± 0.04 62.8 ± 0.04 62.4 ± 0.02 IMRT vs. PAT (0.002), PBT vs. PAT (1.000)
 D98% (Gy) 59.1 ± 0.05 59.4 ± 0.01 59.8 ± 0.02 IMRT vs. PAT (1.000), PBT vs. PAT (1.000)
 Dmean (Gy) 61.9 ± 0.02 61.4 ± 0.03 61.6 ± 0.03 IMRT vs. PAT (1.000), PBT vs. PAT (0.371)
 Conformity index (CI) 1.47 ± 0.03 1.23 ± 0.03 1.19 ± 0.02 IMRT vs. PAT (<0.001), PBT vs. PAT (1.000)
 Homogeneity index (HI) 6.83 ± 0.02 5.67 ± 0.01 4.33 ± 0.02 IMRT vs. PAT (0.003), PBT vs. PAT (<0.001)
Stomach
 V30% (%) 41.5 ± 4.1 26.4 ± 14.3 23.7 ± 8.1 IMRT vs. PAT (<0.001), PBT vs. PAT (<0.001)
 V60% (%) 12.5 ± 1.5 14.8 ± 5.4 11.3 ± 5.6 IMRT vs. PAT (<0.001), PBT vs. PAT (0.018)
 V90% (%) 0.09 ± 0.4 4.25 ± 2.1 3.15 ± 0.9 IMRT vs. PAT (<0.001), PBT vs. PAT (0.002)
 Dmean (Gy) 16.2 ± 1.6 9.84 ± 3.2 10.1 ± 8.4 IMRT vs. PAT (<0.001), PBT vs. PAT (0.518)
Small bowel
 V30% (%) 26.2 ± 7.5 17.5 ± 10.2 12.7 ± 4.2 IMRT vs. PAT (<0.001), PBT vs. PAT (<0.001)
 V60% (%) 2.50 ± 4.2 0.63 ± 4.3 0.73 ± 1.1 IMRT vs. PAT (<0.001), PBT vs. PAT (0.327)
 V90% (%) 0.20 ± 1.3 0.11 ± 1.2 0.02 ± 0.4 IMRT vs. PAT (0.402), PBT vs. PAT (0.039)
 Dmean (Gy) 18.7 ± 1.1 14.9 ± 2.9 15.8 ± 1.9 IMRT vs. PAT (0.365), PBT vs. PAT (0.521)
Kidney
 V30% (%) 12.0 ± 6.3 0.96 ± 2.4 1.10 ± 3.5 IMRT vs. PAT (<0.001), PBT vs. PAT (0.960)
 V60% (%) 1.46 ± 3.9 0 0 IMRT vs. PAT (0.053), PBT vs. PAT (0.321)
 V90% (%) 0.36 ± 1.4 0 0 IMRT vs. PAT (1.000), PBT vs. PAT (1.000)
 Dmean (Gy) 6.61 ± 2.9 1.10 ± 3.3 2.41 ± 2.6 IMRT vs. PAT (1.000), PBT vs. PAT (0.412)
Liver
 V30% (%) 10.5 ± 0.9 8.91 ± 6.7 8.02 ± 4.5 IMRT vs. PAT (<0.001), PBT vs. PAT (1.000)
 V60% (%) 0.16 ± 0.7 2.16 ± 2.6 1.62 ± 1.7 IMRT vs. PAT (<0.001), PBT vs. PAT (0.852)
 V90% (%) 0.02 ± 0.4 0.02 ± 1.3 0.05 ± 1.5 IMRT vs. PAT (0.532), PBT vs. PAT (1.000)
 Dmean (Gy) 10.6 ± 0.4 7.38 ± 1.9 7.88 ± 1.2 IMRT vs. PAT (1.000), PBT vs. PAT (1.000)
Spinal cord
 V30 % (%) 29.7 ± 7.7 21.5 ± 9.4 0 IMRT vs. PAT (<0.001), PBT vs. PAT (<0.001)
 V60 % (%) 8.68 ± 8.2 0 0 IMRT vs. PAT (<0.001), PBT vs. PAT (1.000)
 V90 % (%) 0 0 0 IMRT vs. PAT (1.000), PBT vs. PAT (1.000)
 Dmean (Gy) 15.0 ± 4.2 6.21 ± 6.5 0.92 ± 0.7 IMRT vs. PAT (<0.001), PBT vs. PAT (1.000)
  1. Abbreviations D x%dose received by the x% of the volume, V x% volume receiving at least x% of the prescribed dose. Average parameters ± standard deviation (k = 1) are displayed
  2. *p values of ≤0.05 considered significant; p values of <0.001 were truncated and noted as p < 0.001