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Table 2 Summary of the results of the target volume dose distribution and delivery parameters for all investigated scenarios

From: Initial characterization, dosimetric benchmark and performance validation of Dynamic Wave Arc

Site   3D CRT/IMRT DWA   VMATCDR
   Mean ± SD p-value Mean ± SD p-value Mean ± SD
Prostate
n = 3
Coverage PTV D90% 0.99 ± 0.01 p = 0.95 0.98 ± 0.03 p = 0.90 0.98 ± 0.03
Low dose spillage 3.99 ± 0.21 p = 0.66 3.81 ± 0.22 p = 0.49 4.08 ± 0.58
MU 531 ± 45 p = 0.24 495 ± 2 p = 0.36 463 ± 54
Estimated time (min) - - 3.09 ± 0.02 p < 0.01 1.51 ± 0.13
Actual time (min) 5.55 ± 0.45 p < 0.01 1.59 ± 0.01 p < 0.01 1.23 ± 0.11
Oligo-
metastatic
cases
n = 15
Coverage PTV D80% 0.96 ± 0.1 p = 0.27 0.98 ± 0.05 p = 0.35 0.97 ± 0.07
Low dose spillage 5.98 ± 2.33 p = 0.01 4.87 ± 1.23 p = 0.25 5.03 ± 1.03
MU 975 ± 211 p < 0.01 1370 ± 346 p = 0.29 1320 ± 309
Estimated time (min) - - 3.80 ± 1.41 p = 0.16 3.51 ± 0.80
Actual time (min) 5.47 ± 1.04 p < 0.01 3.44 ± 0.88 p = 0.94 3.46 ± 0.88
Centrally-
located NSCLC
n = 9
Coverage PTV D95% 0.84 ± 0.20 p = 0.21 0.91 ± 0.06 p = 0.26 0.90 ± 0.09
Low dose spillage 5.39 ± 1.24 p = 0.01 4.43 ± 1.06 p = 0.11 4.58 ± 1.02
MU 1885 ± 477 p < 0.01 3349 ± 896 p = 0.29 3238 ± 809
Estimated time (min) - - 8.36 ± 1.83 p = 0.61 8.36 ± 1.98
Actual time (min) 7.08 ± 1.09 p = 0.18 8.45 ± 2.32 p = 0.90 8.59 ± 2.29
LAPC
n = 10
Coverage PTV D98% 0.71 ± 0.23 p = 0.59 0.76 ± 0.13 p = 0.94 0.76 ± 0.15
Coverage GTV D95% 0.81 ± 0.17 p = 0.53 0.85 ± 0.15 p = 0.10 0.85 ± 0.18
Low dose spillage 3.70 ± 0.28 p < 0.01 3.25 ± 0.22 p = 0.90 3.34 ± 0.22
MU 1091 ± 100 p < 0.01 644 ± 65 p = 0.10 704 ± 87
Estimated time (min) - - 3.10 ± 0.15 p = 0.34 3.16 ± 0.20
Actual time (min) 6.83 ± 0.41 p < 0.01 2.42 ± 0.01 p = 0.63 2.51 ± 0.28
  1. Note: The data is presented as mean values ± SD. The statistical difference between 3D CRT vs. DWA and DWA vs. VMATCDR are presented in the first and second p-value columns, respectively Estimated time = TPS approximation based on the dose rate assigned during optimization; Actual time = measured beam-on delivery time.