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Table 1 Studies assessing complication rates from fiducial marker implantation for prostate image guided radiotherapy

From: Infections after fiducial marker implantation for prostate radiotherapy: are we underestimating the risks?

Study Patient numbers Infective complications
Gill et al. [1] 234 3 patients (1.3%) required admission for sepsis
1 patient (0.4%) had Grade 4 septicaemia.
Langenhuijsen et al. [2] 209 4 patients (1.9%) with fever received additional antibiotics.
There were no hospital admissions.
Igdem et al. [3] 135 3 patients (2.2%) developed symptomatic urinary infection with fever and received antibiotics.
There were no hospital admissions.
1 (0.7%) patient developed asymptomatic bacteriuria resistant to antibiotic therapy.
Moman et al. [4] 402 had transrectal FM implantation 2 (0.5%) developed urosepsis (Grade 3 toxicity)
512 had transperineal FM implantation No grade 3 or 4 toxicity.
Loh et al. 285 22 patients (7.7%) received antibiotic treatment for a urinary infection
8 patients (2.8%) required hospital admission for urosepsis.
TRUS biopsy series   
Wagenlehner et al. [10] 521 5.2% had symptomatic urinary tract infection
3.1% required hospital admissions for infectious complications
  1. FM = fiducial marker.
  2. TRUS = Transrectal ultrasound guided.