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Table 2 Dose assessment metrics averaged for all patients for 1 × PCR, 4 × PCR, and 8 × PCR

From: Carbon-ion scanning lung treatment planning with respiratory-gated phase-controlled rescanning: simulation study using 4-dimensional CT data

No. beam fields Metrics Strategy Planning dose 1 × PCR 4 × PCR 8 × PCR
Mean ± (SD) Range Mean ± (SD) Range Mean ± (SD) Range Mean ± (SD) Range
1 beam field D95 (Gy(RBE)) Ungated 46.5 ± 0.4 (45.6-47.4) 43.7 ± 1.7 (39.0-46.2) 46.3 ± 0.4 (45.4-47.2) 46.5 ± 0.4 (45.6-47.3)
   Gated 46.1 ± 0.6 (44.8-47.4) 45.4 ± 0.7 (42.7-46.8) 45.9 ± 0.5 (44.7-46.8) 46.1 ± 0.6 (44.7-47.2)
  Dmax (Gy(RBE)) Ungated 48.7 ± 0.3 (48.5-49.4) 56.6 ± 4.7 (50.4-73.0) 49.7 ± 0.6 (49.0-50.9) 49.0 ± 0.3 (48.5-49.9)
   Gated 48.9 ± 0.3 (48.5-49.4) 51.7 ± 1.9 (49.0-55.2) 49.9 ± 1.0 (48.5-53.8) 49.3 ± 0.5 (49.0-50.9)
  Dmin (Gy(RBE)) Ungated 43.4 ± 1.8 (39.4-47.5) 39.8 ± 3.0 (33.1-44.2) 43.0 ± 1.9 (38.4-46.6) 43.3 ± 1.8 (39.4-47.5)
   Gated 43.3 ± 1.4 (39.8-47.0) 42.0 ± 1.6 (36.0-45.1) 42.8 ± 1.3 (39.4-46.6) 43.2 ± 1.3 (39.8-47.0)
  HI (%) Ungated 1.1 ± 0.2 (0.5-1.7) 5.1 ± 2.3 (2.0-12.4) 1.4 ± 0.3 (0.7-2.3) 1.2 ± 0.2 (0.6-1.7)
   Gated 1.3 ± 0.4 (0.6-2.1) 2.5 ± 0.8 (1.3-4.4) 1.7 ± 0.3 (1.0-2.6) 1.5 ± 0.4 (0.7-2.1)
  Treatment time (s) Ungated N/A N/A 99.1 ± 50.7 (28.3-251.1) 99.1 ± 50.7 (28.3-251.1) 99.1 ± 50.7 (28.3-251.1)
  Gated N/A N/A 118.5 ± 55.0 (44.3-253.9) 118.8 ± 55.0 (47.1-269.8) 119.6 ± 55.5 (44.9-264.3)
4 beam fields D95 (Gy(RBE)) Ungated 46.7 ± 0.4 (46.0-47.6) 45.3 ± 0.9 (43.0-46.3) 46.6 ± 0.3 (46.2-47.5) 46.7 ± 0.4 (46.0-47.6)
   Gated 46.3 ± 0.5 (45.5-47.6) 46.1 ± 0.4 (45.6-46.8) 46.2 ± 0.4 (45.6-47.2) 46.3 ± 0.6 (45.5-47.5)
  Dmax (Gy(RBE)) Ungated 48.5 ± 0.1 (48.5-49.0) 52.6 ± 2.2 (49.9-56.2) 48.9 ± 0.3 (48.5-49.4) 48.6 ± 0.2 (48.5-49.0)
   Gated 48.6 ± 0.2 (48.5-49.0) 49.8 ± 0.8 (49.0-50.9) 49.0 ± 0.5 (48.5-50.4) 48.8 ± 0.3 (48.5-49.4)
  Dmin (Gy(RBE)) Ungated 44.2 ± 1.7 (40.3-47.5) 42.7 ± 1.8 (39.4-45.1) 44.2 ± 1.7 (40.3-47.5) 44.2 ± 1.6 (40.8-47.5)
   Gated 44.4 ± 1.1 (42.7-47.5) 44.0 ± 0.7 (43.2-46.1) 44.2 ± 0.8 (43.2-46.6) 44.3 ± 1.1 (42.7-47.5)
  HI (%) Ungated 0.9 ± 0.2 (0.3-1.2) 2.9 ± 1.1 (1.5-5.6)) 1.0 ± 0.2 (0.4-1.2) 0.9 ± 0.2 (0.3-1.2)
   Gated 1.1 ± 0.3 (0.3-1.6) 1.5 ± 0.3 (1.1-2.0)) 1.2 ± 0.2 (0.7-1.6) 1.2 ± 0.3 (0.4-1.7)
  Treatment time (s) Ungated N/A N/A 396.4 ± 195.4 (180.7-915.8) 396.4 ± 195.4 (180.7-915.8) 396.4 ± 195.4 (180.7-915.8)
  Gated N/A N/A 474.1 ± 218.6 (235.1-939.1) 475.1 ± 218.7 (234.5-960.6) 478.5 ± 220.2 (239.2-956.7)
  1. Abbreviations: CTV clinical target volume, HI homogeneity index, PCR phase-controlled rescanning, SD standard deviation.