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Table 3 Summary the DVH analysis for the clinical cases of the closed-loop and the two open-loop validations

From: Assessment of a model based optimization engine for volumetric modulated arc therapy for patients with advanced hepatocellular cancer

Model validation on the training set of 45 patients Objective Clinical plans Closed-loop validation   p
PTV: V98% [%] >90% 97.2 ± 0.9 96.8 ± 1.4 - NS
[94.9-98.9] [91.4-98.7]
Normal liver: V30Gy [%] <30% 14.7 ± 11.4 14.2 ± 9.6 - NS
[0.0-51.4] [0.0-36.8]
Spine: D1cm3 [Gy] <45 Gy 15.6 ± 8.0 15.1 ± 9.0 - <0.05
[3.9-45.3] [2.7-40.4]
Left kidney V15Gy [%] <35% 1.3 ± 6.2 0.6 ± 2.6 - <0.01
[0.0-39.2] [0.0-14.6]
Right kidney V15Gy [%] <35% 14.3 ± 17.8 8.1 ± 10.8 - <0.01
[0.0-77.4] [0.0-39.9]
Stomach V35Gy [%] <5% 0.1 ± 0.7 0.1 ± 0.6 - NS
[0.0-3.3] [0.0-2.8]
Esophagus: D1cm3 [Gy] <60 Gy 25.4 ± 8.5 23.4 ± 8.7 - <0.10
[12.5-39.9] [10.4-37.4]
Esophagus: V30Gy [%] <30% 0.0 ± 0.0 0.0 ± 0.0 - NS
[0.0-0.0] [0.0-0.0]
Validation on the independent sample of 25 patients Objective Clinical plans Open-loop Validation I Open-loop Validation II  
PTV: V98% [%] >90% 97.4 ± 0.9 96.8 ± 1.9 97.1 ± 2.6 I: <0.05
[94.9-98.3] [89.3-98.3] [89.8-98.6] II: NS
Normal Liver: V30Gy [%] <30% 16.2 ± 10.3 16.9 ± 9.9 18.0 ± 10.5 I: <0.05
[0.0-36.3] [0.0-35.1] [0.0-39.5] II: <0.01
Spine: D1cm3 [Gy] <45 Gy 18.7 ± 7.4 17.6 ± 8.2 15.1 ± 5.5 I: <0.01
[4.1-36.0] [4.3-37.2] [3.9-25.3] II: <0.01
Left kidney V15Gy [%] <35% 1.4 ± 4.3 0.3 ± 1.4 0.01 ± 0.05 I: <0.01
[0.0-19.6] [0.0-6.9] [0.0-0.3] II: <0.01
Right kidney V15Gy [%] <35% 17.6 ± 18.5 12.8 ± 15.0 10.3 ± 10.8 I: <0.01
[0.0-49.9] [0.0-39.7] [0.0-34.4] II: <0.01
Stomach V35Gy [%] <5% 0.1 ± 0.3 0.3 ± 1.0 0.0 ± 0.0 I: <0.04
[0.0-0.8] [0.0-4.2] [0.0-0.0] II: NS
Esophagus: D1cm3 [Gy] <60 Gy 25.7 ± 9.6 21.9 ± 9.8 17.3 ± 4.7 I: <0.01
[11.9-46.9] [0.5-46.1] [10.8-25.1] II: <0.01
Esophagus: V30Gy [%] <30% 0.0 ± 0.0 0.0 ± 0.0 0.0 ± 0.0 I: NS
[0.0-0.0] [0.0-0.0] [0.0-0.0] II: NS
  1. VxGy Volume receiving at least XGy, D Y% (D ycm3 ) dose delivered to at least Y% (or cm3) of the volume. NS not significant. I: clinical vs. Open-loop I; II: clinical vs. Open-loop II.