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Table 1 Comparison of characteristics, group with fracture versus group without fracture (Chi 2 test, comparison of means) a) Clinical parameters

From: Assessment of the risk factors for impending fractures following radiotherapy for long bone metastases using CT scan-based virtual simulation: a retrospective study

  Total (%) Fractures (%) Without fractures (%)  
Number of patients 37 10 27  
Number of lesions radiated 47 10 37  
Age     p = 0.16
Mean (years) 62.8 65.3 62.2
Age range (years) 33 - 93 33 - 87 33 - 93
Gender     NS
Men 27 (57.5) 4 (14.8) 23 (85.2)
Women 20 (42.5) 6 (30) 14 (70)
Primary cancer     NS
Lung 18 (38.3) 4 (22) 14 (78)
Breast 11 (23.4) 3 (27) 8 (73)
Prostate 10 (21.3) --- 10 (100) p = 0.08
Other 8 (17.0) 3 (37.5) 5 (62.5)
Corticosteroids     NS
< 1 month 1 (2.1) 1 (100) ---
> 1 month and < 6 months 2 (4.2) 1 (50) 1 (50)
> 6 months 0 --- ---
No 42 (89.5) 8 (19) 34 (81)
NA 2 (4.2) --- 2 (100)
Biphosphonates     NS
Yes 21 (44.7) 4 (19) 17 (81)
No 21 (44.7) 4 (19) 17 (81)
NA 5 (10.6) 2 (40) 3 (60)
Chemotherapy ongoing     p = 0.03
Yes 34 (72.3) 10 (29) 24 (71)
No 13 (27.7) --- 13 (100)
Long bone     NS
Femur 28 (59.6) 7 (25) 21(75)
Humerus 17 (36.2) 3 (18) 14(78)
Tibia 2 (4.2) --- 2 (100)
Locoregional history     NS
Fracture 2 (4.2) 1 (50) 1 (50)
Osteoarthritis 5 (10.5) --- 5 (100)
No 40 (85.1) 9 (23) 31 (77)
Contralateral prosthesis 4 (8.5) --- 4 (100) NS
Pain intensification     NS
Yes 42 (89.4) 10 (24) 32 (76)
No 5 (10.6) --- 5 (100)
a) Radiological parameters
Number of lesions radiated 47 10 37  
Localization     NS
Upper third 43 (91.5) 9 (21) 34 (79)
Lower third 4 (8.5) 1 (25) 3 (75)
Type of metastatic spread     
Well defined 23 (49.0) --- 23 (100) p = 0.0005
Diffuse 24 (51.0) 10 (42) 14 (58)
Appearance of the metastatic lesion     
Normal 2 (4.2) --- 2 (100) p = 0.02
Osteolytic 18 (38.3) 7 (39) 11 (61)
Mixed 15 (31.9) 3 (20) 12 (80)
Osteoblastic 11 (23.5) --- 11 (100)
Moth---eaten 1 (2.1) --- 1 (100)
Mean dimensions (mm)     
Height 59.8 80.07 46.1  
CI 95% (40.5; 79.1) (50.37; 109.8) (33.3; 58.9) p < 0.01
Diameter 1 32.2 48.5 27.6  
CI 95% (26.8; 37.5) (41.8; 55.1) (22.7; 32.6) p = 0.01
Diameter 2 22.9 34.2 19.8  
CI 95% (18.6; 27.3) (29.5; 38.8) (15.3; 24.3) p = 0.01
Circumferential perimeter 142.6 133.1 145.2 p = 0.15
CI 95% (129.9; 155.3) (127.1; 139.1) (130.3; 160.1)  
Cortical thickness 3.5 3.3 3.6 p = 0.27
CI 95% (3.1; 3.9) (3.2; 3.4) (3.1; 4.0)  
Craniocaudal cortical lysis     p < 0.0001
Mean (mm) 45.2 103.0 28.6
CI 95% (25.3; 65.0) (85.6; 120.4) (14.7; 42.6)
Cortical lysis threshold    
No 16(34.0) --- 16 (100)
< 30 mm 10 (21.3) --- 10 (100)
< 30 mm 21 (44.7) 10 (47.6) 11 (52.4)
Circumferential cortical lysis     p < 0.0001
Mean (mm) 32.3 78.6 19.8
CI 95% (22.3; 42.3) (74.5; 82.6) (11.6; 28.1)
Cortical lysis (%)    
No 16 (34.0) --- 16 (100)
< 50% 21 (44.7) 2 (9.5) 19 (90.5)
< 50% 10 (21.3) 8 (80) 2 (20)
Cortical lysis in thickness     p = 0.0018
Mean (mm) 2.2 3.3 2.0
CI 95% (1.6; 2.9) (3.2; 3.4) (1.2; 2.7)
Cortical lysis (%)    
No 16 (34.0) --- 16 (100)
0 - 99% 5 (10.7) --- 5 (100)
100% 26 (55.3) 10 (38.5) 16 (61.5)
Mirels score     P = 0.0005
≤ 7 14 (29.8) --- 14 (100)
= 8 9 (19.1) --- 9 (100)
≥ 9 24 (51.1) 10 (42) 14 (58)
  1. CI: confidence Interval; NA: not applicable; NS: not significant.