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Table 1 Effectiveness comparison for various histologies by anatomical location between Standard of Care (SOC) and Carbon Ions

From: Bringing the heavy: carbon ion therapy in the radiobiological and clinical context

Site No. of carbon ion studies 5-year LC range Toxicity range (late ≥ GIII injury) References
   SOC Carbon SOC Carbon  
Intracranial       
  Glioma 2 < 20% - Location dependent - Trials ongoing§†
  Meningioma 2 80-90% - Location dependent - Trials ongoing§‡
Head and Neck       
  Adenoid cystic 3 27-72% 26-96% 0-12.9% 0-17% [141, 142]
  Bone/soft tissue sarcoma 2 43-70% 24-73% 0% 2-18.5% [20, 140, 143147]
  Skull base 3 46-73% 82-88% 0-7% 0-5% [117121, 148]
Thorax       
  NSCLC 4 80-97% 90-95% 0-15% 3% (pneumonitis) [21, 149]
Abdomen and Pelvis       
  HCC 4 75-96% 81-96% 7-22% 3-4% [21, 130133, 150]
  Pancreas 2 10-20% 66-100% 1.8-20% 7.7% [136, 151153]
  Prostate 2 80-95%** 87-99%* 4-28% 0.1-25% [21, 24, 154159]
  Rectal cancer 1 24-28% 95% 14-27% - [21, 160162]
  Cervix cancer 1 20% 53% 0-10.6 9.6-18.2% [163165]
  Sacral chordoma 1 55-72% 88% 17.6% 5.9%-17.9% [166168]
  Chondrosarcoma 1 20-40% 60% - - [167, 168]
  1. Abbreviations: SOC Standard of Care, LC Local Control, HCC Hepatocellular carcinoma, GIII Grade III toxicity, *OS (Overall survival); **bPFS (biochemical progression free survival); §CLEOPATRA (NCT01165671); CINDERELLA (NCT01166308); MARCIE (NCT01166321).