Robustness analyses for a representative case. (A) Axial, sagittal, and coronal views of the dose distributions for the nominal and worst-case plans and the difference in dose between them (nominal minus worst-case). The white line represents the contoured clinical target volume (CTV). (B) Dose-volume histogram of the CTV for seven scenarios: the nominal plan and the cold and hot doses on the T0 phase, T50 phase, and 4D accumulated plans. (C) Worst-case dose distributions on the T0 and T50 phases and the differences between them. (D) Banded dose-volume histogram of the CTV. The blue and red solid lines represent the DVHs for the CTV (blue) and the PTV (red) in the nominal plan.