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Table 1 Baseline clinical characteristics of study patients according to implant technique

From: Comparison between preoperative and real-time intraoperative planning 125I permanent prostate brachytherapy: long-term clinical biochemical outcome

Characteristics Total sample Implant technique P value
   PP IoP  
  (n =1176) (n =132) (n = 1044)  
Age, years     
      Mean (SD) 66.2 (6.5) 67.8 (5.9) 66.0 (6.5)  
      Median 67.0 68.0 67.0  
      Range 45.0–80.0 50.0–79.0 45.0–80.0  
      95% CI 65.9–66.6 66.8–68.8 65.6–66.4 0.002*
PSA, ng/ml     
      Mean (SD) 7.4 (3.1) 8.6 (3.8) 7.2 (3.0)  
      Median 6.7 7.6 6.6  
      Range 0.6–22.0 0.7–20.0 0.6–22.0  
      95% CI 7.2–7.6 7.9–9.2 7.1–7.4 <0.001*
PSA, n (%)     
      ≤ 10 980 (83.3) 94 (71.2) 886 (84.9)  
      > 10 196 (16.7) 38 (28.8) 158 (15.1) <0.001**
Gleason score,     
      Mean (SD) 5.9 (0.6) 5.3 (0.8) 6.0 (0.5)  
      Median 6.0 5.0 6.0  
      Range 3.0–7.0 3.0–7.0 3.0–7.0  
      95% CI 5.91–5.98 5.2–5.5 5.9–6.1 <0.001*
Gleason score < 7, n (%) 1044 (88.8) 128 (97.0) 916 (87.7) 0.002**
Prostate volume, ml     
      Mean (SD) 38.4 (9.6) 35.0 (9.1) 38.8 (9.6)  
      Median 38.0 35.0 39.0  
      Range 10.0–74.0 13.0–57.0 10.0–74.0  
      95% CI 37.8–68.9 33.4–36.6 38.2–39.4 <0.001*
Clinical stage, n (%)     
      T1-T2a 1086 (92.3) 113 (85.6) 973 (93.2)  
      > T2a 56 (4.8) 14 (10.6) 42 (4.0) 0.001**
ADT, n (%) 442 (37.6) 54 (40.9) 388 (37.2) 0.4**
EBRT, n (%) 132 (11.2) 4 (3) 128 (12.3) 0.002**
Follow-up, months     
      Mean (SD) 51.8 (35.1) 80.5 (43.5) 48.1 (32.1)  
      Median 47.0 83.0 47.0  
      Range 1.0–155.0 3.0–155.0 1.0–132.0  
      95% CI 49.7–53.8 72.9–87.9 46.2–50.1 <0.001*
  1. *Mann–Whitney test, α < 0.05; **Chi-square test, α < 0.05.
  2. PP, Preplanning; IoP, Intraoperative planning; PSA, Prostate-specific antigen; ADT, Androgen deprivation therapy; EBRT, External beam radiation.