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Table 1 Results of univariate and multivariate analyses of risk factors for freedom from locoregional recurrence in patients with resected N1 non–small cell lung cancer

From: Risk factors for locoregional recurrence in patients with resected N1 non-small cell lung cancer: a retrospective study to identify patterns of failure and implications for adjuvant radiotherapy

Patient characteristics and treatments No. of patients Univariate analysis FFLR (%) Multivariate analysis
   3-yr 5-yr P χ2 P HR (95% CI)
Sex        
  Male 164 81.2 78.1 0.934 0.007   
  Female 35 78 72.4     
Age (yrs)        
  <65 144 79 78.2 0.942 0.005   
  ≥65 55 85.6 74.7     
Smoking history        
  No 143 69 66.6 0.026 4.958 0.388 0.735 (0.365–1.479)
  Yes 56 85.3 81.5     
Diabetes        
  No 184 80.8 77 0.787 0.073   
  Yes 15 80 80     
Tumor type        
  Peripheral 89 78.5 74.1 0.267 1.233   
  Central 110 82.4 79.9     
Location        
  Upper 114 78.5 77.4 0.868 0.028   
  Middle/lower lobe 85 83.8 77.3     
Laterality        
  Left 103 81 81 0.243 1.363   
  Right 96 80.5 73.7     
Surgical procedure        
  Pneumonectomy 54 83.1 80.3 0.662 0.191   
  Lobectomy 145 79.9 76.2     
Histology        
  Squamous cell 101 81.8 80.5 0.201 1.633   
  Non-squamous cell 98 79.3 73.2     
Tumor differentiation        
  Well/Moderate 156 80.1 75.3 0.497 0.462   
  Poor 43 81.6 73.9     
Pathological stage        
  T1 63 81.4 77.5 0.935 0.135   
  T2 92 79.9 78.5     
  T3 44 81.4 74.2     
Tumor size        
  ≤5 cm 147 82.6 79.9 0.214 1.545   
  >5 cm 52 75.3 70     
Visceral pleural invasion        
  No 82 88 86.3 0.025 5.025 0.075 1.882 (0.937–3.778)
  Yes 117 75.7 71     
LVI        
  No 145 83.6 79.9 0.088 2.905 0.213 1.506 (0.79–2.869)
  Yes 54 72.9 69.6     
Bronchoscopy        
  Negative/not done 88 77.3 72.7 0.080 3.063 0.721 0.873 (0.415–1.836)
  Positive 111 83.5 81.1     
Adjuvant chemotherapy        
  No 41 86.1 75.3 0.975 0.001   
  Yes 158 79.5 77.9     
No. of dissected LNs        
  ≤23 121 74.4 71.1 0.007 7.981 0.14 0.539 (0.238–1.224)
  >23 78 91.1 87.6     
No. of metastatic LNs        
  1 88 83.5 82 0.182 1.785   
  ≥2 111 78.7 73. 7     
LNR        
  ≤10% 119 86.6 84.1 0.027 4.871 0.976 1.011 (0.506–2.017)
  >10% 80 73.8 69.1     
Dissection of MLN        
  IMD 113 73.2 68.5 0.001 11.58 0.003 0.309 (0.142–0.671)
  CMD 86 90.7 89   1   
No. of metastatic LN stations        
  1 138 81.7 79.9 0.154 2.032   
  ≥2 61 78.4 70.5     
Positive LNs at station 10        
  Yes 54 68.5 65.9 0.01 6.724 0.046 0.527 (0.281–0.989)
  No 145 85.3 81.7     
  1. FFLR, freedom from locoregional recurrence; HR, hazard ratio; CI, confidence interval; LVI, lymphovascular invasion; LN, lymph node; LNR, lymph node ratio; MLN, mediastinal lymph node; CMD, complete MLN dissection and examination; IMD, incomplete MLN node dissection or examination.