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Table 1 Comparisons of clinicopathologic and treatment characteristics by era

From: Population-based outcomes after brain radiotherapy in patients with brain metastases from breast cancer in the Pre-Trastuzumab and Trastuzumab eras

Characteristics Pre-Trastuzumab Era Trastuzumab Era p- value
  n = 128 n = 441  
Age (years) 0.017
  <65 104 (81%) 345 (78%)
  ≥ 65 24 (19%) 96 (22%)
  Median 53 (26–81) 55 (29–91)
M1 at diagnosis <0.001
  Yes 5 (4%) 113 (26%)
  No 115 (90%) 256 (58%)
  Unknown 8 (6%) 72 (16%)
Tumor grade 0.084
  1 0 (0%) 13 (3%)
  2 24 (19%) 106 (24%)
  3 95 (74%) 315 (71%)
  Unknown 9 (7%) 7 (2%)
Hormone receptor status 0.83
ER+ 51 (40%) 180 (41%)
ER- 68 (53%) 249 (57%)
Unknown 9 (7%) 12 (3%)
HER2 status <0.001
  Positive 33 (26%) 176 (40%)
  Negative 87 (68%) 212 (48%)
Unknown 8 (6%) 53 (12%)
Time from diagnosis to BM (years)  
  Median 3.3 2.3  
KPS at BM 0.76
  <70 47 (37%) 170 (38%)
  ≥70 81 (63%) 271 (62%)
Number of BM 0.025
  1 44 (34%) 117 (27%)
  2-3 23 (18%) 73 (16%)
  Multiple 61 (48%) 251 (57%)
Primary disease at BM 0.007
  Controlled 104 (81%) 305 (70%)
  Uncontrolled 24 (19%) 135 (31%)
Extracranial disease at BM 0.32
  Brain only 22 (17%) 97 (22%)
  Bone + brain 22 (17%) 76 (17%)
  Visceral + brain +/−bone 76 (59%) 245 (57%)
  Other 8 (6%) 23 (5%)
RPA at BM 0.17
  1 9 (7%) 55 (12%)
  2 72 (56%) 219 (50%)
  3 47 (37%) 167 (39%)
Craniotomy 0.037
  Yes 15 (12%) 87 (20%)
No 113 (88%) 354 (80%)
Trastuzumab at BM*  
  Yes 0 (0%) 150 (34%)  
  No 128 (100%) 26 (5%)  
Hormonal therapy at BM* <0.001
  Yes 72 (56%) 100 (23%)
  No 56 (44%) 341 (77%)
Chemotherapy at BM* 0.032
  Yes 43 (34%) 194 (44%)
  No 85 (66%) 242 (55%)
  Unknown 0 (0%) 5 (1%)
  1. * Refers to treatments given on or after the date of first brain metastases.
  2. Abbreviations: ER = estrogen receptor, HER2 = human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, KPS = Karnofsky performance status, BM = brain metastasis, RPA = recursive partitioning analysis.