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Table 4 Univariate analysis of patient and dosimetric characteristics and risk of radiation pneumonitis (n = 130)

From: Clinical outcome and predictors of survival and pneumonitis after stereotactic ablative radiotherapy for stage I non-small cell lung cancer

Characteristic 0–1 RP Grade 2–3 RP P Value
  No. of Patients (%) No. of Patients (%)  
Sex    0.882
Male 59 (51.3) 8 (53.3)  
Female 56 (48.7) 7 (46.7)  
Age    0.310
≥74 years 62 (53.9) 6 (40.0)  
<74 years 53 (46.1) 9 (60.0)  
COPD stage    0.154
0–II 62 (53.9) 11 (73.3)  
III–IV 53 (46.1) 4 (26.7)  
History of other type of cancer    0.440
Yes 34 (29.6) 3 (20.0)  
No 81 (70.4) 12 (80.0)  
ECOG score before SABR    0.711
0–1 71 (61.7) 10 (66.7)  
2–3 44 (38.3) 5 (33.3)  
Gross tumor volume, cm3    0.375
≥9.6 55 (47.8) 9 (60.0)  
<9.6 60 (52.2) 6 (40.0)  
Planning target volume, cm3    0.151
≥73.2 54 (47.0) 10 (66.7)  
<73.2 61 (53.0) 5 (33.3)  
Tumor location    0.471
Peripheral 106 (92.2) 13 (86.7)  
Central 9 (7.8) 2 (13.3)  
Total lung volume*
V5    < 0.001
≥ 20.2% 51 (44.3) 14 (93.3)  
< 20.2% 64 (55.7) 1 (6.7)  
V10    < 0.001
≥ 14.3% 51 (44.3) 14 (93.3)  
< 14.3% 64 (55.7) 1 (6.7)  
V15    0.003
≥ 11.0% 52 (45.2) 13 (86.7)  
< 11.0% 63 (54.8) 2 (13.3)  
V20   0.055  
≥ 8.5% 54 (47.0) 11 (73.3)  
< 8.5% 61 (53.0) 4 (26.7)  
V25    0.055
≥ 6.4% 54 (47.0) 11 (73.3)  
< 6.4% 61 (53.0) 4 (26.7)  
V30    0.003
≥ 5.0% 52 (45.2) 13 (86.7)  
< 5.0% 63 (54.8) 2 (13.3)  
V35    0.003
≥ 3.9% 52 (45.2) 13 (86.7)  
< 3.9% 63 (54.8) 2 (13.3)  
V40    0.013
≥ 3.1% 53 (46.1) 12 (80.0)  
< 3.1% 62 (53.9) 3 (20.0)  
Mean dose to total lung volume    0.013
≥ 5.05 Gy 53 (46.1) 12 (80.0)  
< 5.05 Gy 62 (53.9) 3 (20.0)  
Ipsilateral lung volume†
V5    < 0.001
≥ 37.7% 51 (44.3) 14 (93.3)  
< 37.7% 64 (55.7) 1 (6.7)  
V10    < 0.001
≥ 28.5% 51 (44.3) 14 (93.3)  
< 28.5% 64 (55.7) 1 (6.7)  
V15    < 0.001
≥ 21.9% 51 (44.3) 14 (93.3)  
< 21.9% 64 (55.7) 1 (6.7)  
V20    < 0.001
≥ 16.9% 51 (44.3) 14 (93.3)  
< 16.9% 64 (55.7) 1 (6.7)  
V25    0.003
≥ 13.1% 52 (45.2) 13 (86.7)  
< 13.1% 63 (54.8) 2 (13.3)  
V30    0.013
≥ 10.4% 53 (46.1) 12 (80.0)  
< 10.4% 62 (53.9) 3 (20.0)  
V35    0.003
≥ 8.1% 52 (45.2) 13 (86.7)  
< 8.1% 63 (54.8) 2 (13.3)  
V40    0.013
≥ 6.3% 53 (46.1) 12 (80.0)  
< 6.3% 62 (53.9) 3 (20.0)  
Mean dose to ipsilateral lung volume    < 0.001
≥9.14 Gy 51 (44.3) 14 (93.3)  
<9.14 Gy 64 (55.7) 1 (6.7)  
  1. * Defined as right plus left lungs minus the gross tumor volume.
  2. † Defined as the lung containing the lesion to be treated, minus the gross tumor volume.
  3. Abbreviations: RP, radiation pneumonitis; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; ECOG, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group; SABR, stereotactic ablative radiotherapy; Vx, volume of lung receiving =x Gy; GTV, gross tumor volume; MLD, mean lung dose.