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Table 7 Biomarkers of CNS injury

From: Neuropsychological testing and biomarkers in the management of brain metastases

Excitotoxicity Glutamate GABA
  GABA
Endothelial Damage Protein S100B
  NSE
  MMP-9
  MMP-13
Inflammation TNF-alpha
  Il-1
  ICAM-1
  VCAM-1
Angiogenesis MMP2
  MMP9
  VEGF
  1. Abbreviations: NSE = neuron-specific enolase, MMP = matrix metalloproteinases
  2. TNF = Tumor necrosis factor; Il = interleukin, ICAM = intercellular adhesion molecule; VCAM = vascular cellular adhesion molecule, VEGF = vascular endothelial growth factor