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Table 1 Overview of experimental studies of central nervous system (CNS) radioprotection

From: Experimental concepts for toxicity prevention and tissue restoration after central nervous system irradiation

Reference Animals CNS region RT schedule AF schedule Follow-up Results
Guelman et al. [88] Neonatal Wistar rats Cephalic end 1 × 5 Gy Subcutaneously 100 mg/kg 30 days (90 days for 1 endpoint) Sign. protection
Alaoui et al. [89] Young Sprague-Dawley rats Whole body (brain) 1 × 2.5 Gy Intraperitoneal 75 mg/kg 6 hours No sign. protection
Lamproglou et al. [90] Young Wistar rats Whole brain 10 × 3 Gy Intraperitoneal 37.5, 75 and 150 mg/kg 7.5 months 37.5 mg/kg not effective; 150 mg/kg caused 34% mortality; 75 mg/kg reduced memory dysfunction
Plotnikova et al. [91, 92] Adult Wistar rats Whole brain 1 × 25 Gy (earlier study with 40 or 60 Gy) Intraperitoneal 300 mg/kg 18 months Protection against vascular damage, necrosis and death after 25 Gy only
Spence et al. [93] Adult F-344 rats Spinal cord 1 × 20–38 Gy Intrathecal 0.33 mg 36 weeks Protection with DMF 1.3
Nieder et al. [94] Adult F344 rats Spinal cord 2 fractions, high dose Intrathecal 0.3 mg 12 months No sign. protection
Nieder et al. [94] Adult F344 rats Spinal cord 2 fractions, high dose Subcutaneous 200 mg/kg 12 months Protection at 36 Gy-level
Nieder et al. [43] Adult F344 rats Spinal cord Single fraction, high dose Intrathecal 0.3 mg plus s.c. IGF-1 12 months Protection with DMF 1.07
Andratschke et al. [44] Adult F344 rats Spinal cord 2 fractions, high dose Intrathecal PDGF as sole treatment 12 months Protection with DMF 1.05
  1. RT: radiotherapy; AF: amifostine; IGF-1: insulin-like growth factor-1; PDGF: platelet-derived growth factor; DMF: dose modification factor